The Visual Analog or Analogue Scale (VAS) is designed to present to the respondent a rating scale with minimum constraints. Respondents mark the location on the 10-centimeter line corresponding to the amount of pain they experienced. This gives them the greatest freedom to choose their pain's exact intensity. It also gives the maximum opportunity for each respondent to express a personal response style. VAS data of this type is recorded as the number of millimeters from the left of the line with the range 0-100.
<-- 10 cm. -->
|Pain as bad as possible|
Visual Analogue Scales (VAS):
Aitken, R. C. B. (1969). Measurement of feelings using visual analogue scales. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine. 62, 989 - 993
Freyd, M. (1923). The graphic rating scale. Journal of Educational Psychology, 43, 83 - 102
Hayes, M. H. S. & D. G. Patterson (1921). Experimental development of the graphic rating method. Psychological Bulletin, 18, 98-99
Do less constraints result in better information? In a study of knee pain (Thomeé et al., 1995) a VAS scale was presented to patients. Conventional analysis treats this 101 category rating scale as already linear. Rasch analysis, however, paints a different picture. It is impossible for humans to discriminate 101 levels of pain intensity accurately. Miller (1956) suggests that 9 levels is the best we can do in any situation. Further, the transformation of pain intensity into a location on a line must make its way through a sequence of mental processes. The effect is that the use of the line by different respondents varies greatly. In the pain study, Rasch analysis indicated that the intended 101 category rating scale could be considered, at best, to contain 10 replicable category groupings - one per centimeter. Accordingly, the observed categories were collapsed into a 1-10 rating scale. Even on this scale, use of extreme categories 1, 9, 10 appeared to be influenced by idiosyncratic reactions to pain.
In many situations, VAS scales can be collapsed down to 3 or 4 replicable categories with advantage. Munshi (1990) conducted a study in which 210 air travellers each responded to 8 prompts by marking their opinions from absolute disagreement to complete agreement on 76 mm. lines. The locations of the marks were measured to the nearest 0.5 mm. This gave 153 categories! Essentially every possible distance was observed in the 1615 responses, but 23% of the markings were at the extremes. A cluster analysis was performed of the remaining points. It revealed that, when within-cluster variation is treated as random error and between-cluster variation as intentional, more than 75% of the total variance in the non-extreme data can be explained by dichotomization! Thus more than 80% of the variance in the data was explained with just 4 categories. In his analysis, 7 categories explained 98%.
It is clear in Munshi's study, that reducing from 153 to 7 categories has not lost any replicable information, but conventional statistics, such as reliabilities, would mislead the analyst into believing the opposite. Reliabilities, standard errors and separations are computed on the basis that the data are what they purport to be. Thus in the uncollapsed data, observations appear to be on a highly discriminating 153 category rating scale. Consequently standard errors are very low and separations and reliabilities very high. In fact, insightful analysis has revealed that observations are on a much less discriminating 7 category scale, with necessarily bigger standard errors and lower separations and reliabilities. To report results based on the original 153 categories would misinform ourselves and our readers.
The moral of the VAS story: be Procrustean with your Visual Analog Scales!
John Michael Linacre
Miller G.A. (1956) The magical number seven, plus or minus two: some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review, 63, 81-97.
Munshi J. (1990) A Method for Constructing Likert Scales. Research Report. Sonoma State University, CA. www.munshi.4t.com/papers/likert.html
Thomeé R., Grimby G., Wright B.D., Linacre J.M. (1995) Rasch analysis of Visual Analog Scale measurements before and after treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome in women. Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine 27, 145-151.
Visual Analog Scales.Linacre J.M. Rasch Measurement Transactions, 1998, 12:2 p. 639.
|Rasch Measurement Transactions (free, online)||Rasch Measurement research papers (free, online)||Probabilistic Models for Some Intelligence and Attainment Tests, Georg Rasch||Applying the Rasch Model 2nd. Ed., Bond & Fox||Best Test Design, Wright & Stone|
|Rating Scale Analysis, Wright & Masters||Introduction to Rasch Measurement, E. Smith & R. Smith||Introduction to Many-Facet Rasch Measurement, Thomas Eckes||Invariant Measurement: Using Rasch Models in the Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences, George Engelhard, Jr.||Statistical Analyses for Language Testers, Rita Green|
|Rasch Models: Foundations, Recent Developments, and Applications, Fischer & Molenaar||Journal of Applied Measurement||Rasch models for measurement, David Andrich||Constructing Measures, Mark Wilson||Rasch Analysis in the Human Sciences, Boone, Stave, Yale|
|Forum||Rasch Measurement Forum to discuss any Rasch-related topic|
Go to Top of Page
Go to index of all Rasch Measurement Transactions
AERA members: Join the Rasch Measurement SIG and receive the printed version of RMT
Some back issues of RMT are available as bound volumes
Subscribe to Journal of Applied Measurement
Go to Institute for Objective Measurement Home Page. The Rasch Measurement SIG (AERA) thanks the Institute for Objective Measurement for inviting the publication of Rasch Measurement Transactions on the Institute's website, www.rasch.org.
|Coming Rasch-related Events|
|Feb 23 - June 19, 2015, Mon.-Fri.||On-line graduate-level course: Advanced Rasch Measurement Theory (D. Andrich, I. Marais, RUMM), www.education.uwa.edu.au/ppl/courses|
|March 11-13, 2015, Wed.-Fri.||In-person workshop: Introductory Rasch (A. Tennant, RUMM), Leeds, UK, www.leeds.ac.uk/medicine/rehabmed/psychometric|
|March 11-13, 2015, Wed.-Fri.||In-person workshop: Einführung in die Raschanalyse mit RUMM2030 (Böcker, Salzberger, RUMM), Aachen, Germany, www.psychometrikon.de|
|March 20, 2015, Fri.||UK Rasch User Group Meeting, London, United Kingdom, www.rasch.org.uk|
|March 26-27, 2015, Thur.-Fri.||In-person workshop: Introduction to Rasch Measurement with Winsteps (W. Boone), Cincinnati, raschmeasurementanalysis.com|
|April 16-20, 2015, Thurs.-Mon.||AERA Annual Meeting, Chicago IL www.aera.net|
|April 21-22, 2015, Tues.-Wed.||IOMC 2015: International Outcomes Measurement Conference, Chicago IL www.jampress.org|
|May 13-15, 2015, Wed.-Fri.||In-person workshop: Introductory Rasch (A. Tennant, RUMM), Leeds, UK, www.leeds.ac.uk/medicine/rehabmed/psychometric|
|May 18-20, 2015, Mon.-Wed.||In-person workshop: Intermediate Rasch (A. Tennant, RUMM), Leeds, UK, www.leeds.ac.uk/medicine/rehabmed/psychometric|
|May 29 - June 26, 2015, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|July 3-31, 2015, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Further Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|July 27 - Nov. 20, 2015, Mon.-Fri.||On-line course: Introduction to Rasch Measurement Theory (D. Andrich, I. Marais, RUMM), www.education.uwa.edu.au/ppl/courses|
|Aug. 14 - Sept. 11, 2015, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Many-Facet Rasch Measurement (E. Smith, Facets), www.statistics.com|
|Sept. 9-11, 2015, Wed.-Fri.||In-person workshop: Introductory Rasch (A. Tennant, RUMM), Leeds, UK, www.leeds.ac.uk/medicine/rehabmed/psychometric|
|Sept. 14-16, 2015, Mon.-Wed.||In-person workshop: Intermediate Rasch (A. Tennant, RUMM), Leeds, UK, www.leeds.ac.uk/medicine/rehabmed/psychometric|
|Sept. 17-18, 2015, Thur.-Fri.||In-person workshop: Advanced Rasch (A. Tennant, RUMM), Leeds, UK, www.leeds.ac.uk/medicine/rehabmed/psychometric|
|Oct. 16 - Nov. 13, 2015, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|Sept. 4 - Oct. 16, 2015, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Rasch Applications, Part 1: How to Construct a Rasch Scale (W. Fisher), www.statistics.com|
|Oct. 23 - Nov. 20, 2015, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Rasch Applications, Part 2: Clinical Assessment, Survey Research, and Educational Measurement (W. Fisher), www.statistics.com|
|Dec. 2-4, 2015, Wed.-Fri.|
|Aug. 12 - Sept. 9, 2016, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Many-Facet Rasch Measurement (E. Smith, Facets), www.statistics.com|
|The HTML to add "Coming Rasch-related Events" to your webpage is:|