Rasch Research Papers, Explorations & Explanations

Full Text Online Here

Georg Rasch 1901-1980


Ben Wright rules! ca. 2000
Benjamin D. Wright, ca. 2000
(1926 - 2015)

Papers by and about Georg Rasch

Measurement Essentials

Measurement Essentials
2nd Edition
by Benjamin Wright & Mark Stone
Copyright © Benjamin Wright & Mark Stone, 1999
Reproduced with permission: Permission to copy is granted.

Originally published by Wide Range, Inc. Wilmington, Delaware
(Full substantive text: me-all.pdf 29MB)
Title Title Page
Foreword Foreword
Contents Table of Contents
Chapter 1 The Idea of Measurement
Chapter 2 Objectivity
Chapter 3 The Idea of a Variable
Chapter 4 Deducing the Measurement Model
Chapter 5 Turning Scores into Measures
Chapter 6 How Variables are Constructed
Chapter 7 Fit Analysis
Chapter 8 Identifying Item Bias
Chapter 9 Control Lines for Item Plots
Chapter 10 Information Function and Misfit Sensitivity
Chapter 11 Connecting Tests
Chapter 12 Building Scholastic Variables
  Chapter 13 Item Banking
Chapter 14 Variable Mapping
Chapter 15 Estimating Item Calibrations and Person Measures
Chapter 16 Parameter Estimation
Chapter 17 Information and Misfit Analysis
Chapter 18 Separation Statistics
Chapter 19 Reliability and Separation (also Memo #53)
Chapter 20 Validity
Chapter 21 Scoring Models
Chapter 22 Dimensionality
Chapter 23 Quality Control Plots for Evaluating Co-Relations
Chapter 24 Guessing
Chapter 25 Explaining Validity and Reliability
Chapter 26 The Steps to Measurement
References References
Insights from Measurement Research Associates
  1. How Much Does Test Difficulty Change Across Years? - Mary Lunz
  2. Time Usage and Candidate Outcomes on Multiple Choice Examinations - Phil Higgins
    Time Allocation for Oral Examinations - Phil Higgins
  3. Reliability of Oral Certification Examinations - Surintorn Suanthong
  4. Deleting Items Improves Reliability on Multiple Choice Examinations - Mary Lunz
  5. Consistency of Common Item p-Values across Multiple Choice Exam Administrations - Ross Brown
  6. Criterion Referenced Standard Setting for Multiple Choice Examinations - Tara McNaughton
  7. Targeting Multiple Choice Examinations for Accurate Outcomes - Ross Brown
  8. The Measurement of Examiner Consistency - Lidia Martinez
  9. Reliability for Multiple Choice Examinations - Surintorn Suanthong
  10. Differences in Candidate Performance Across Oral Exam Formats - Ross Brown
  11. Test Length and Test Reliability for Multiple Choice Examinations - Mary E. Lunz
  12. Multiple Choice Items: Cognitive Skills Tested - Tara McNaughton
  13. Repeating Candidate Performance on Re-Used Protocols - Mary Lunz
  14. Item Difficulty and Time Usage - Phil Higgins
  15. Time Usage and Candidate Performance - Lidia Martinez
  16. Practice Analysis Issues and Methods - Tara McNaughton
  17. How Examiners of Different Severity Grade Candidates of Different Ability - Lidia Martinez
  18. Consequences of Flawed Items - Ross Brown
  19. Candidate Measured Ability and Use of Time - Phil Higgins
  20. Test Equating For Comparable Passing Standards - Mary Lunz
  21. Using The Very Useful Wright Map - Mary Lunz
  22. The Relationship between Examiner Severity and Consistency - Lidia Martinez
  23. Comparison of Item Performance with Large and Small Samples - Mary Lunz
  24. Alternative Item Formats For Computer Based Testing - Mary Lunz

Rasch Models for Measurement in Educational and Psychological Research

Rasch Models for Measurement in Educational and Psychological Research
Education Research and Perspectives. Vol. 9, No. 1 June 1982
Reproduced with permission.

Popular Measurement

Popular Measurement 1:1, 1998, Article , (Full substantive text: pm1-all.pdf 21MB)
Purchase printed back-issue
Original PagesIndex PDF: 
Rasch Explained  
To Whom Are We Talking? The Need for a Primer on "Conversational" Rasch - Rita Bode, Ph.D.p. 5 pm1-05.pdf
Research Problems - Rasch Solutions - Donna Surges Tatum, Ph.D.p. 6-8 pm1-06.pdf
Reading Ruler  
The Lexile Framework for Reading: A Map to Higher Levels of Achievement - A. Jackson Stenner, Ph.D.p. 9-11 pm1-09.pdf
Profiles in Measurement  
Galton: The First Psychometrician? - Larry Ludlow, Ph.D.p. 13-14 pm1-13.pdf
Rasch: The Man Behind the Model - Benjamin D. Wright, Ph.D.p. 15-22 pm1-15.pdf
Wright: The Measure of the Man - John Michael Linacre, Ph.D.p. 23-25 pm1-23.pdf
Andrich: A Genius From Down Under - Linda Webster, Ph.D.p. 26 pm1-26.pdf
Some Insights Into Objective Measurement - David Andrich, Ph.D.p. 27 pm1-27.pdf
Measurement Musings  
Methodology and Morality - William P Fisher, Jr., Ph.D.p. 28 pm1-28.pdf
Rasch Invents Ounces - Ellie Choi, Ph.D.p. 29 pm1-29.pdf
Rasch's Novel Wisdom - William P Fisher, Jr., Ph.D.p. 30 pm1-30.pdf
Three Stages of Construct Definition - A. Jackson Stenner, Ph.D. & Ivan Horabin, Ph.D.p. 31 pm1-31.pdf
Where Do Dimensions Come From? - Benjamin D. Wright, Ph.D.p. 32 pm1-32.pdf
Testing Testing Testing  
"Flow" as a Testing Ideal - Craig Deville, Ph.D.p. 33 pm1-33.pdf
A Savvy Test-taker - Thomas O'Neillp. 33 pm1-33.pdf
What is the "Right" Test Length? - Benjamin D. Wright, Ph.D.p. 34 pm1-34.pdf
Cross-Language Test Equating - Richard Woodcock, Ph.D. & Ana Munoz-Sandoval, Ph.D.p. 35 pm1-35.pdf
CAT and Test-Wiseness - Richard Gershon, Ph.D. & Betty Bergstrom, Ph.D.p. 37 pm1-37.pdf
Web-Enhanced Testing - Richard Gershon, Ph.D.p. 38-39 pm1-38.pdf
Games People Play  
How Good Was Bobby Fischer in 1992? - John Michael Linacre, Ph.D.p. 40 pm1-40.pdf
Objective Analysis of Golf - Patrick Fisher, M.A.p. 41-42 pm1-41.pdf
Anatomy of Assessment  
Assessment : What is it? Why do we need it? How do we use it? - Roy Berko, D.Ed. & Linda Webster, Ph.D.p. 43-44 pm1-43.pdf
Public Speaking Assessment for College Students - William W Neher, Ph.D. & Debbi Grew, M.A.p. 45-46 pm1-45.pdf
Student Progress? Prove It! - Donna Surges Tatum, Ph.D.p. 47-51 pm1-47.pdf
Rehab Measurement  
Health Care Outcome Measurement - William P Fisher, Jr., Ph.D.p. 52-54 pm1-52.pdf
Instantaneous Measurement and Diagnosis - John Michael Linacre, Ph.D.p. 55-59 pm1-55.pdf
Raters & Rating Scales  
Rating Scales and Shared Meaning - Winifred Lopez, Ph.D.p. 60 pm1-60.pdf
Rating Scales Categories : Dichotomy, Double Dichotomy, and the Number Two - Mark H. Stone, Ph.D.p. 61-65 pm1-61.pdf
Measure Accuracy : Functioning-Level vs. Grade-Level Testing - George Ingebo, Ph.D.p. 66-68 pm1-66.pdf
Biological Evolution : A Tough Nut to Crack for Biology Teachers in Singapore? - Yew-Jin, Lee Ph.D. & Oon-chye, Yeoh, Ph.D.p. 69-72 pm1-69.pdf
A Secondary Scoring Mechanism to Study Change - Winifred Lopez, Ph.D.p. 73-74 pm1-73.pdf
Pay Attention! Screening for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in College Students - Everett V Smith, Jr., Ph.D.p. 75-77pm1-75.pdf
What is in the Criminal's Mind? A Picture is Worth a Thousand Words - George Karabastos, Ph.D.p. 78 pm1-78.pdf

Popular Measurement 2:1, 1999, Article (Full substantive text: pm2-all.pdf 16MB)
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Original PagesIndex PDF: 
Profiles in Measurement  
Newton: Pinball Wizard - Larry H. Ludlow & Kathleen A. Haleyp. 5-7 pm2-05.pdf
John Michael Linacre : The Man Behind The Code - Ellen Sullivan Woodsp. 8-9 pm2-08.pdf
Measurement Spotlight  
The Sound Of Music - David Moulton & Mark Moultonp. 10-16 pm2-10.pdf
Games People Play  
What Are The Odds? Measuring College Basketball - John Michael Linacrep. 17-18 pm2-17.pdf
Measuring Mountains - Ryan Bowlesp. 19-21 pm2-19.pdf
Anatomy of Assessment  
Assessment: Coming Of Age - Sherwyn E Morreale & Philip A. Backlundp. 22-23 pm2-22.pdf
Is More Better? Measuring the Effects of Full-Day Kindergarten - Donna Surges Tatump. 24-26 pm2-24.pdf
Speak Up! A College Competency Assessment Tool - Richard Quianthy & Deborah Hefferinp. 27-30 pm2-27.pdf
Measuring Change In Efficacy - Everett V Smith, Jr., Kimberly Lawless, Leslie Curda & Steven Curdap. 31-33 pm2-31.pdf
Reading Ruler  
One Fish, Two Fish: Rasch Measures Reading Best - Benjamin D. Wright & A. Jackson Stennerp. 34-38 pm2-34.pdf
Lexile Perspectives - Benjamin D. Wright & A. Jackson Stennerp. 39-40 pm2-39.pdf
Using Lexiles - Benjamin D. Wright & A. Jackson Stennerp. 41-42 pm2-41.pdf
Testing Testing Testing  
Rasch At Work - Betty A. Bergstrom & John A. Stahlp. 43 pm2-43.pdf
Testing Smarter With Technology? - Anne Wendtp. 44-45 pm2-44.pdf
Judging Judges  
Adjusting For Rather Severity Over Time - Thomas R. O'Neillp. 46-47 pm2-46.pdf
A Longitudinal Study of judge Leniency - Mary E. Lunzp. 48-49 pm2-48.pdf
Putting The Psych In Psychometrics - Larry H. Ludlowp. 50-51 pm2-50.pdf
Attention Please! Dimensions of Attention Deficit - Everett V Smith, Jr.p. 52-53 pm2-52.pdf
Is A Rose A Rose? - Kelly Minorp. 54-56 pm2-54.pdf
Rehab Measurement  
Adding It Up: Improved Outcomes and Economic Development - William E Fisher, Jr.p. 57-59 pm2-57.pdf
Continuum of Care: Measuring Medical Rehabilitation Outcomes - Carl V Granger, M.D.p. 60-62 pm2-60.pdf

Popular Measurement 3:1, 2000, Article (Full substantive text pm3-all.pdf 19MB)
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Original PagesIndex PDF: 
Profiles in Measurement  
Fechner: The Man in the Mask - Larry H. Ludlow & Rose Alvarez-Salvatp. 5-6 pm3-05.pdf
Thurstone : Measurement For a New Science - Nikolaus Bezruczkop. 7-11 pm3-07.pdf
Jack Stenner : The Lexile King - Linda J. Websterp. 12-13 pm3-12.pdf
Reading Ruler  
Lexile Perspectives - Benjamin D. Wright & A. Jackson Stennerp. 14-17 pm3-14.pdf
How the Lexile Framework® Operates - Rick R. Smithp. 18-19 pm3-18.pdf
The Lexile Community: From Science to Practice - Rick R. Smithp. 20-21 pm3-20.pdf
Best Practices for Using Lexiles - Barbara R. Blackburnp. 22-24 pm3-22.pdf
A Spanish Version ofThe Lexile Framework® for Reading - Ellie Sanfordp. 25-26 pm3-25.pdf
Measurement Musings  
The Shift from Modeling Observations to Applying Theory - Thomas R. O'Neillp. 27-29 pm3-27.pdf
Statistics versus Measurement? - Keith M. McCoyp. 30 pm3-30.pdf
What Works for Me - Rita K. Bodep. 31 pm3-31.pdf
Research and Practice: Bundled Bedfellows - Robert L. Durrah, Jr.p. 32-33 pm3-32.pdf
Measurement Spotlight  
Just Say "No!" The Impact of Negation in Survey Research - Marci Morrow Enosp. 34-39 pm3-34.pdf
Testing Testing Testing  
A Standard Vision - Gregory E. Stonep. 40-41 pm3-40.pdf
Precision Versus Practicality - Cindy Britop. 42-43 pm3-42.pdf
An Introduction to Three Item Testing - Kirk Beckerp. 44-46 pm3-44.pdf
A Review of CAT Review - Renata Sekula-Wacurap. 47-49 pm3-47.pdf
Factors that Impact Analytic Skill Ratings - Jessica Heineman-Pieper & Mary E. Lunzp. 50-52 pm3-50.pdf
Crime & Punishment  
Thurstone's Crime Scale Re-Visited - Mark H. Stonep. 53-54 pm3-53.pdf
Toward a Definition of Sexual Harassment in the Workplace - SuzyVance & Anne Wendtp. 55-57 pm3-55.pdf
Raters & Rating Scales  
Survey Design Recommendations - William P Fisher, Jr.p. 58-60 pm3-58.pdf
Rasch Analysis for Surveys - Ben Wrightp. 61 pm3-61.pdf
Expert Panels, Consumers, and Chemistry - Thomas K. Rehfeldtp. 62-64 pm3-62.pdf
Objective Measurement of Subjective Well-being - Elizabeth A. Hahnp. 65-67 pm3-65.pdf
Culture Shift: Managing Change in the Hospital Setting - Judy Schueler and Donna Surges Tatump. 68-69 pm3-68.pdf
Psychometric Ponderings  
Using Rasch Measures For Rasch Model Fit Analysis - George Karabatsosp. 70-71 pm3-70.pdf
Classroom Classics  
Classic Instructional Handouts of Professor Benjamin D. Wright - Matthew Enosp. 72 pm3-72.pdf
What's to Learn in Psychometrics? - Benjamin D. Wrightp. 73 pm3-73.pdf
Three "Cs" to Meaning: The Big Picture - Benjamin D. Wrightp. 74 pm3-74.pdf
The Road to Reason - Benjamin D. Wrightp. 75 pm3-75.pdf
Realizations of Measurement - Benjamin D. Wrightp. 76 pm3-76.pdf
Basic Research Methods - Benjamin D. Wrightp. 77 pm3-77.pdf

Popular Measurement 4:1, 2002, Article (Full text pm4.pdf 2MB) Original Pages 
Residuals: Trash or Treasure? - Larry H. Ludlowp. 1-7 pm4-01.pdf
Identifying Problematic Examiners in an Oral Examination - Jessica Heineman-Pieper and Mary E. Lunzp. 8-12 pm4-08.pdf
Food for Thought from Carnot - William P. Fisherp. 13-14 pm4-13.pdf
Quality Control in Testing. - Mark H. Stonep. 15-23 pm4-15.pdf
Rule-based Aptitude Measurement: Artistic Judgment. - Nikolaus Bezruczko and Ambra Borgognoni Vimercatip. 24-30 pm4-24.pdf
An Introductory Text on Rasch Measurement. - Trevor G. Bondp. 31-33 pm4-31.pdf
From the Classroom. - Matthew Enosp. 34 pm4-34.pdf
Four Minds to Life. - Benjamin D. Wrightp. 35 pm4-35.pdf
Rasch Analysis for Surveys. - Benjamin D. Wrightp. 36 pm4-36.pdf



  1. Professor Benjamin D Wright Compares and Contrasts Factor Analysis and Rasch Measurement Video. 1994. Assessment archives Part 1
  2. Benjamin D Wright and Geoffrey N. Masters discuss the assessment of skill development Video. 1994. Assessment archives Part 2
  3. Rasch Model Explanations (Portland, Oregon) Video. Benjamin D. Wright, 1974. https://youtu.be/F5fXszn9Y-0 176MB length: 21:00.
  4. Rasch Model Explanations (Waterbury, Connecticut) Video. Benjamin D. Wright, 1984. https://youtu.be/2F4PTgWX14U 672MB length: 1:27:05.
  5. Measurement, Rasch Model and Microscale (precursor to Winsteps) Video. Benjamin D. Wright, 1985(?). https://youtu.be/FdtpgMVP1EI 238MB length: 39:56.
  6. The Rasch Model Video. Benjamin D. Wright, 1988. https://youtu.be/eF_M1GamQPE 74MB length: 12:23.
  7. Introduction to the Rasch Model Video. Benjamin D. Wright, 1994.
    Parts 1+2+3. https://youtu.be/K8fdBLGfhxc 426MB length: 1:19:16.
    Part 1. https://youtu.be/-IyXEryhN6A 180MB length: 30:15.
    Part 2. https://youtu.be/Rw5RY7tqVks 164MB length: 26:45.
    Part 3. https://youtu.be/SfYr0dkzijw 142MB length: 23:17.
  8. Rasch Model Interview Video. Benjamin D. Wright, 1994 (interviewed by John Michael Linacre). https://youtu.be/iwh70F_kCEI 209MB length: 32:50.
  9. Bigsteps (Rasch Software, precursor to Winsteps) Training Seminar Video. John Michael Linacre, 1995?, videotaped by Thomas O'Neill
    Part 1. https://youtu.be/80vVfflQfB8 251MB length: 41:04.
    Part 2. https://youtu.be/K_H7s_hMhsY 256MB length: 41:57.
    Part 3. https://youtu.be/Ys57BG0tIkE 155MB length: 25:24.
  10. Introduction to Rasch Measurement Video. John Michael Linacre, 2007? https://youtu.be/SIivnjxbHqs 49MB length: 8:17.
  11. Introduction to Rasch Measurement Video (version for China). John Michael Linacre, 2007? https://youtu.be/Vg0z8dbPYRQ 59MB length: 10:03.
  12. The Philosophy of Rasch Measurement Video. John Michael Linacre, 2008? https://youtu.be/VlNt8jqcPZw 20MB length: 10:37.
  13. Many-Facets Rasch Measurement Video. John Michael Linacre, 2010? https://youtu.be/KT0xj0vudSQ 14MB length: 13:58.
  14. Rasch model estimation: Calculationg calibrations and mean-squares with JMLE (Winsteps). John Michael Linacre, 2001
    Part 1: https://youtu.be/LvE8npeSjZ0 14MB length: 13:58.
    Part 2: https://youtu.be/X2zaib5VDnk 14MB length: 13:58.
    Part 3: https://youtu.be/O6xH2lKbWgc 14MB length: 13:58.


  1. IRT in the 1990s - Which Models Work Best - Introduction and Ben Wright Opening Statement - Session 11.05 AERA 1992.
    1. Introduction and Ben Wright Opening Statement. IRT-Wright.mp3 13MB length: 15:58
      See also edited text
    2. Ron Hambleton Opening Statement. IRT-Hambleton-1.mp3 12MB length: 14:32
    3. Ron Hambleton continued. IRT-Hambleton-2.mp3 1MB length: 1:44
      See also text summary
    4. Discussant Linda Crocker. IRT-Crocker.mp3 10MB length: 11:33
    5. Discussant Geoff Masters. IRT-Masters.mp3 9MB length: 11:29
    6. Discussant Wim van der Linden. IRT-van-der-Linden-1.mp3 4MB length: 5:04
    7. Discussant van der Linden Continued. IRT-van-der-Linden-2.mp3 7MB length: 7:53

Rasch Forum - Rasch on the Run

Not Available

Rasch publications in Spanish - Español
www.rasch.org/rmt/glosario.htmRasch Anàlisis - Glosario Español - Spanish Glossary - Español-Inglés del diccionario - Spanish-English Dictionary - Dr. Agustín Tristàn Lòpez
www.rasch.org/diseno.htmSpanish language introduction to Diseño de Mejores Pruebas (Best Test Design)
Book PDFDiseño de Mejores Pruebas - Spanish-language translation of Best Test Design (Wright & Stone, 1979)

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Go to Institute for Objective Measurement Page

Rasch-Related Resources: Rasch Measurement YouTube Channel
Rasch Measurement Transactions & Rasch Measurement research papers - free An Introduction to the Rasch Model with Examples in R (eRm, etc.), Debelak, Strobl, Zeigenfuse Rasch Measurement Theory Analysis in R, Wind, Hua Applying the Rasch Model in Social Sciences Using R, Lamprianou El modelo métrico de Rasch: Fundamentación, implementación e interpretación de la medida en ciencias sociales (Spanish Edition), Manuel González-Montesinos M.
Rasch Models: Foundations, Recent Developments, and Applications, Fischer & Molenaar Probabilistic Models for Some Intelligence and Attainment Tests, Georg Rasch Rasch Models for Measurement, David Andrich Constructing Measures, Mark Wilson Best Test Design - free, Wright & Stone
Rating Scale Analysis - free, Wright & Masters
Virtual Standard Setting: Setting Cut Scores, Charalambos Kollias Diseño de Mejores Pruebas - free, Spanish Best Test Design A Course in Rasch Measurement Theory, Andrich, Marais Rasch Models in Health, Christensen, Kreiner, Mesba Multivariate and Mixture Distribution Rasch Models, von Davier, Carstensen
Rasch Books and Publications: Winsteps and Facets
Applying the Rasch Model (Winsteps, Facets) 4th Ed., Bond, Yan, Heene Advances in Rasch Analyses in the Human Sciences (Winsteps, Facets) 1st Ed., Boone, Staver Advances in Applications of Rasch Measurement in Science Education, X. Liu & W. J. Boone Rasch Analysis in the Human Sciences (Winsteps) Boone, Staver, Yale Appliquer le modèle de Rasch: Défis et pistes de solution (Winsteps) E. Dionne, S. Béland
Introduction to Many-Facet Rasch Measurement (Facets), Thomas Eckes Rasch Models for Solving Measurement Problems (Facets), George Engelhard, Jr. & Jue Wang Statistical Analyses for Language Testers (Facets), Rita Green Invariant Measurement with Raters and Rating Scales: Rasch Models for Rater-Mediated Assessments (Facets), George Engelhard, Jr. & Stefanie Wind Aplicação do Modelo de Rasch (Português), de Bond, Trevor G., Fox, Christine M
Exploring Rating Scale Functioning for Survey Research (R, Facets), Stefanie Wind Rasch Measurement: Applications, Khine Winsteps Tutorials - free
Facets Tutorials - free
Many-Facet Rasch Measurement (Facets) - free, J.M. Linacre Fairness, Justice and Language Assessment (Winsteps, Facets), McNamara, Knoch, Fan

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