Notes & Quotes

Picturing Knowledge

"In rating ease of description as very important, we are essentially asserting a belief in quantitative knowledge--a belief that most of the key questions in our world sooner or later demand answers to 'by how much?' rather than merely to 'in which direction?'

"Consistent with this view, we believe, is a clear demand that pictures based on exploration of data should force their messages upon us. Pictures that emphasize what we already know - 'security blankets' to reassure us - are frequently not worth the space they take. Pictures that have to be gone over with a reading glass to see the main point are wasteful of time and inadequate of effect. The greatest value of a picture is when it forces us to notice what we never expected to see."

John W. Tukey. Exploratory Data Analysis. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley, 1977, p.vi.


"The construction of a variable thus requires
(i) appreciating the possibility of summarizing some set of phenomena into a construct that can be thought of in terms of magnitudes,
(ii) eliciting through an observation framework from within a specified frame of reference the relevant observations with adequate consistency, and
(iii) the choice and application of a mathematical model to transform the observations into measurements."

Andrich, D. Rasch Models for Measurement. Sage University papers, #68. page 16.



Notes & Quotes … Rasch Measurement Transactions, 1991, 5:2 p. 156


Please help with Standard Dataset 4: Andrich Rating Scale Model



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Rasch Measurement Transactions (free, online) Rasch Measurement research papers (free, online) Probabilistic Models for Some Intelligence and Attainment Tests, Georg Rasch Applying the Rasch Model 3rd. Ed., Bond & Fox Best Test Design, Wright & Stone
Rating Scale Analysis, Wright & Masters Introduction to Rasch Measurement, E. Smith & R. Smith Introduction to Many-Facet Rasch Measurement, Thomas Eckes Invariant Measurement: Using Rasch Models in the Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences, George Engelhard, Jr. Statistical Analyses for Language Testers, Rita Green
Rasch Models: Foundations, Recent Developments, and Applications, Fischer & Molenaar Journal of Applied Measurement Rasch models for measurement, David Andrich Constructing Measures, Mark Wilson Rasch Analysis in the Human Sciences, Boone, Stave, Yale
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