Introductory science courses in Schools of Education stress a variety of teacher training topics. Two topic's central to most classes are the teaching implications of Piaget's theories and the art of questioning. Unfortunately undergraduates have difficulty understanding the classroom application of these topics. To help education majors at Indiana University better understand cognitive theories and questioning techniques, two item maps constructed with Rasch scaled test items are used.
These teacher training "item maps" (Figures 1 and 2) resemble Woodcock's KeyMath plots. The first item map uses five items from a 90 question 4th grade science test. All the items require objects to be ordered. This item map exposes undergraduates to real test items which real students had answered and provides an immediate picture of how test items involving types of "ordering" compare. The item map allows these future teachers to "see" that although "length" might be more easily comprehended than "volume", a "volume" ordering problem (#48) is not always more difficult for elementary students than a "length" ordering problem (#50 and #51).
Student teachers are also surprised that the bean plant item (#7) which requires appreciation of "growth" and "time" is not more difficult than the "volume" food jar item (#48).
Education courses for teachers expose them to lectures and readings reminding them to consider carefully how questions should be posed in a classroom. To help teachers think more deeply about question formulation, a second item map uses four other items from the science test.
Undergraduates are asked to explain the ordering and spacing of questions on this item map. They see items #22 and #23 are easier than items #85 and #87 because the number of options varies. Several have commented that although it might seem common sense, the map shows that teachers change the difficulties of their questions by the number of options they use.
The ease with which undergraduates use these two item maps shows that presenting calibrated items on a variable line can be a valuable tool for teachers in training. Students use the item ordering and spacing to think about the real life classroom application of a college text's educational theories.
Item: #48 #7 #47 #51 #50 Logit: -1.67 -1.62 -1.08 -.06 .82 !! ! ! ! --+----------+--------+----------+--------+---------+---------+-- -2 -1.5 -1 -.5 0 .5 1 Easy Items Hard Items
Figure 1. Teacher Education Item Map #1.
Item #50 (Difficulty .82 logits)
[Four pictures of different potted plants with leaves.]
Arrange plants in order from longest leaves to shortest leaves.
Item #51 (Difficulty -.06 logits)
[Four pictures of snails and their trails. The trails are symbolized
with a line of dots.]
What is the order of these snail trails if they are arranged from longest to shortest?
Item #47 (Difficulty -1.08 logits)
[Four pictures of glasses filled with water.]
These glasses are the same size. Order them from fullest to least full glass.
Item #7 (Difficulty -1.62 logits)
[Four pictures of a bean plant. Structure above and below ground is shown.]
Order the pictures according to the life cycle of a bean plant.
Item #48 (Difficulty -1.67 logits)
[Four jars of food.]
These food jars are the same size. Order them from greatest to least amount of food.
Item: #22 #23 #85 #87 Logit: -1.90 -.79 -.42 -.16 ! ! ! ! ---+----------+--------+---------+---------+---------+---------+- -2 -1.5 -1 -.5 0 .5 1 Easy Items Hard Items
Figure 2. Teacher Education Item Map #2
Item 87 (Difficulty -.16)
Which is light and smooth: basketball? tennis ball? bowling ball? ping pong ball?
Item 85 (Difficulty -.42)
Which is wet and can be poured: water in a glass? ice cube? salt shaker? ice cream cone?
Item 23 (Difficulty -.79)
Which object is small, hard,, and sharp: window? penny? thumb tack? flower?
Item 22 (Difficulty -1.90)
What is cold, hard, and wet: milk? brick? soup? ice?
Using item calibrations to improve teacher education. Boone WJ. Rasch Measurement Transactions, 1992, 5:4 p.180
Please help with Standard Dataset 4: Andrich Rating Scale Model
|Rasch Measurement Transactions (free, online)||Rasch Measurement research papers (free, online)||Probabilistic Models for Some Intelligence and Attainment Tests, Georg Rasch||Applying the Rasch Model 3rd. Ed., Bond & Fox||Best Test Design, Wright & Stone|
|Rating Scale Analysis, Wright & Masters||Introduction to Rasch Measurement, E. Smith & R. Smith||Introduction to Many-Facet Rasch Measurement, Thomas Eckes||Invariant Measurement: Using Rasch Models in the Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences, George Engelhard, Jr.||Statistical Analyses for Language Testers, Rita Green|
|Rasch Models: Foundations, Recent Developments, and Applications, Fischer & Molenaar||Journal of Applied Measurement||Rasch models for measurement, David Andrich||Constructing Measures, Mark Wilson||Rasch Analysis in the Human Sciences, Boone, Stave, Yale|
|in Spanish:||Análisis de Rasch para todos, Agustín Tristán||Mediciones, Posicionamientos y Diagnósticos Competitivos, Juan Ramón Oreja Rodríguez|
|Forum||Rasch Measurement Forum to discuss any Rasch-related topic|
Go to Top of Page
Go to index of all Rasch Measurement Transactions
AERA members: Join the Rasch Measurement SIG and receive the printed version of RMT
Some back issues of RMT are available as bound volumes
Subscribe to Journal of Applied Measurement
Go to Institute for Objective Measurement Home Page. The Rasch Measurement SIG (AERA) thanks the Institute for Objective Measurement for inviting the publication of Rasch Measurement Transactions on the Institute's website, www.rasch.org.
|Coming Rasch-related Events|
|April 26-30, 2017, Wed.-Sun.||NCME, San Antonio, TX, www.ncme.org - April 29: Ben Wright book|
|April 27 - May 1, 2017, Thur.-Mon.||AERA, San Antonio, TX, www.aera.net|
|April 29, 2017, Sat., 16:35 to 18:05.||NCME Presidents Invitational Symposium: a new book commemorating Ben Wright's life and career, 16:35 to 18:05, San Antonio, TX, www.ncme.org|
|May 26 - June 23, 2017, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|June 30 - July 29, 2017, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Further Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|July 31 - Aug. 3, 2017, Mon.-Thurs.||Joint IMEKO TC1-TC7-TC13 Symposium 2017: Measurement Science challenges in Natural and Social Sciences, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, imeko-tc7-rio.org.br|
|Aug. 7-9, 2017, Mon-Wed.||In-person workshop and research coloquium: Effect size of family and school indexes in writing competence using TERCE data (C. Pardo, A. Atorressi, Winsteps), Bariloche Argentina. Carlos Pardo, Universidad Catòlica de Colombia|
|Aug. 7-9, 2017, Mon-Wed.||PROMS 2017: Pacific Rim Objective Measurement Symposium, Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia, proms.promsociety.org/2017/|
|Aug. 10, 2017, Thurs.||In-person Winsteps Training Workshop (M. Linacre, Winsteps), Sydney, Australia. www.winsteps.com/sydneyws.htm|
|Aug. 11 - Sept. 8, 2017, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Many-Facet Rasch Measurement (E. Smith, Facets), www.statistics.com|
|Aug. 18-21, 2017, Fri.-Mon.||IACAT 2017: International Association for Computerized Adaptive Testing, Niigata, Japan, iacat.org|
|Sept. 15-16, 2017, Fri.-Sat.||IOMC 2017: International Outcome Measurement Conference, Chicago, jampress.org/iomc2017.htm|
|Oct. 13 - Nov. 10, 2017, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|Jan. 5 - Feb. 2, 2018, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|Jan. 10-16, 2018, Wed.-Tues.||In-person workshop: Advanced Course in Rasch Measurement Theory and the application of RUMM2030, Perth, Australia (D. Andrich), Announcement|
|Jan. 17-19, 2018, Wed.-Fri.||Rasch Conference: Seventh International Conference on Probabilistic Models for Measurement, Matilda Bay Club, Perth, Australia, Website|
|May 25 - June 22, 2018, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|June 29 - July 27, 2018, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Further Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|Aug. 10 - Sept. 7, 2018, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Many-Facet Rasch Measurement (E. Smith, Facets), www.statistics.com|
|Oct. 12 - Nov. 9, 2018, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|The HTML to add "Coming Rasch-related Events" to your webpage is:|
The URL of this page is www.rasch.org/rmt/rmt54d.htm