"The principal concern of factor analysis is the resolution of a set of variables [items] linearly in terms of (usually) a small number of categories or `factors'. This resolution can be accomplished by the analysis of the correlations among the variables" (Harmon, p.4).
"If one were to make his choice entirely upon statistical considerations, a rather natural approach would be to represent the original set of variables in terms of a number of factors, determined in sequence so that at each successive stage the factor would account for the maximum of variance. This statistically optimal solution - the method of principal axes [components] - was first proposed by Pearson , and in the 1930's, Hotelling provided the full development of the method." (Harmon, p.4).
An ideal of the Rasch model is that all the information in the data be explained by the latent measures. Then the unexplained part of the data, the residuals, is, by intention, random noise. In particular, after standardization of each residual by its model standard deviation, the noise should follow a random normal distribution. Further, the noise associated with one item is modelled to be independent of the noise associated with any other item. Consequently, all off-diagonal elements of the inter-item correlation matrix are expected to be 0. Empirical inter-item correlations, of course, depart from 0.
What is the expected correlation of an item with itself, the correlations which comprise the main diagonal of the correlation matrix? "The values put in the diagonal of the observed correlation matrix determine what portions of the unit variances are factored into common factors" (Harmon, p. 35). If the values are 1's, then "principal components" analysis results. Lesser values lead to "common factor" analysis. Under Rasch model conditions, the residuals associated with any item have no relationship to any other item. Consequently each item's residuals comprise a unique factor meaning that the values in the diagonal of the correlation matrix would be set to zero. Empirically, however, this is asserting the conclusion that the data conform to the Rasch model. Let us test this conclusion by asserting that all residual variance is due to common factors and place 1's in the diagonal. If the resulting common factors explain nothing more than chance variations in noise across items, then the assertion of communality is refuted and the data conform to the Rasch model. The existence of substantive common factors, however, would indicate the data harbor more than one latent variable.
The aim of the factor analysis of Rasch residuals is thus to attempt to extract the common factor that explains the most residual variance under the hypothesis that there is such a factor. If this factor is discovered to merely "explain" random noise, then there is no meaningful structure in the residuals. In this kind of investigation, neither factor rotation nor oblique axes appear to be relevant. This approach accords with philosopher Karl Popper's "falsification" test of scientific hypotheses.
If the biggest factor is perceived to partition the items into a meaningful structure according to their factor loadings, then there is structure within the items not explained by the primary measurement system. This structure merits further investigation, and also prompts inspection of lesser factors.
The impact of a residual factor on the measurement system can be
easily determined. Extract two subsets of items representing the
opposite poles of the factor. Measure each subject on each subset
of items. Cross-plot the subject measures. The shape of the plot
indicates the extent to which the structure in the residuals is
perturbing the measurement of the subjects. Plot each item's
subset difficulty against its original difficulty to see in what
manner the item construct is being distorted. Only perturbation
that has impact on the empirical meaning or use of the measures is
John Michael Linacre
Harmon, H. H. (1960) Modern Factor Analysis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Structure in Rasch residuals: Why principal components analysis (PCA)? Linacre J.M. Rasch Measurement Transactions, 1998, 12:2 p. 636.
|Rasch Measurement Transactions (free, online)||Rasch Measurement research papers (free, online)||Probabilistic Models for Some Intelligence and Attainment Tests, Georg Rasch||Applying the Rasch Model 2nd. Ed., Bond & Fox||Best Test Design, Wright & Stone|
|Rating Scale Analysis, Wright & Masters||Introduction to Rasch Measurement, E. Smith & R. Smith||Introduction to Many-Facet Rasch Measurement, Thomas Eckes||Invariant Measurement: Using Rasch Models in the Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences, George Engelhard, Jr.||Statistical Analyses for Language Testers, Rita Green|
|Rasch Models: Foundations, Recent Developments, and Applications, Fischer & Molenaar||Journal of Applied Measurement||Rasch models for measurement, David Andrich||Constructing Measures, Mark Wilson||Rasch Analysis in the Human Sciences, Boone, Stave, Yale|
|Forum||Rasch Measurement Forum to discuss any Rasch-related topic|
Go to Top of Page
Go to index of all Rasch Measurement Transactions
AERA members: Join the Rasch Measurement SIG and receive the printed version of RMT
Some back issues of RMT are available as bound volumes
Subscribe to Journal of Applied Measurement
Go to Institute for Objective Measurement Home Page. The Rasch Measurement SIG (AERA) thanks the Institute for Objective Measurement for inviting the publication of Rasch Measurement Transactions on the Institute's website, www.rasch.org.
|Coming Rasch-related Events|
|Feb 23 - June 19, 2015, Mon.-Fri.||On-line graduate-level course: Advanced Rasch Measurement Theory (D. Andrich, I. Marais, RUMM), www.education.uwa.edu.au/ppl/courses|
|March 11-13, 2015, Wed.-Fri.||In-person workshop: Introductory Rasch (A. Tennant, RUMM), Leeds, UK, www.leeds.ac.uk/medicine/rehabmed/psychometric|
|March 11-13, 2015, Wed.-Fri.||In-person workshop: Einführung in die Raschanalyse mit RUMM2030 (Böcker, Salzberger, RUMM), Aachen, Germany, www.psychometrikon.de|
|March 20, 2015, Fri.||UK Rasch User Group Meeting, London, United Kingdom, www.rasch.org.uk|
|March 26-27, 2015, Thur.-Fri.||In-person workshop: Introduction to Rasch Measurement with Winsteps (W. Boone), Cincinnati, raschmeasurementanalysis.com|
|April 16-20, 2015, Thurs.-Mon.||AERA Annual Meeting, Chicago IL www.aera.net|
|April 21-22, 2015, Tues.-Wed.||IOMC 2015: International Outcomes Measurement Conference, Chicago IL www.jampress.org|
|May 13-15, 2015, Wed.-Fri.||In-person workshop: Introductory Rasch (A. Tennant, RUMM), Leeds, UK, www.leeds.ac.uk/medicine/rehabmed/psychometric|
|May 18-20, 2015, Mon.-Wed.||In-person workshop: Intermediate Rasch (A. Tennant, RUMM), Leeds, UK, www.leeds.ac.uk/medicine/rehabmed/psychometric|
|May 29 - June 26, 2015, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|July 3-31, 2015, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Further Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|July 27 - Nov. 20, 2015, Mon.-Fri.||On-line course: Introduction to Rasch Measurement Theory (D. Andrich, I. Marais, RUMM), www.education.uwa.edu.au/ppl/courses|
|Aug. 14 - Sept. 11, 2015, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Many-Facet Rasch Measurement (E. Smith, Facets), www.statistics.com|
|Sept. 9-11, 2015, Wed.-Fri.||In-person workshop: Introductory Rasch (A. Tennant, RUMM), Leeds, UK, www.leeds.ac.uk/medicine/rehabmed/psychometric|
|Sept. 14-16, 2015, Mon.-Wed.||In-person workshop: Intermediate Rasch (A. Tennant, RUMM), Leeds, UK, www.leeds.ac.uk/medicine/rehabmed/psychometric|
|Sept. 17-18, 2015, Thur.-Fri.||In-person workshop: Advanced Rasch (A. Tennant, RUMM), Leeds, UK, www.leeds.ac.uk/medicine/rehabmed/psychometric|
|Oct. 16 - Nov. 13, 2015, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|Sept. 4 - Oct. 16, 2015, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Rasch Applications, Part 1: How to Construct a Rasch Scale (W. Fisher), www.statistics.com|
|Oct. 23 - Nov. 20, 2015, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Rasch Applications, Part 2: Clinical Assessment, Survey Research, and Educational Measurement (W. Fisher), www.statistics.com|
|Dec. 2-4, 2015, Wed.-Fri.|
|Aug. 12 - Sept. 9, 2016, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Many-Facet Rasch Measurement (E. Smith, Facets), www.statistics.com|
|The HTML to add "Coming Rasch-related Events" to your webpage is:|