"The principal concern of factor analysis is the resolution of a set of variables [items] linearly in terms of (usually) a small number of categories or `factors'. This resolution can be accomplished by the analysis of the correlations among the variables" (Harmon, p.4).
"If one were to make his choice entirely upon statistical considerations, a rather natural approach would be to represent the original set of variables in terms of a number of factors, determined in sequence so that at each successive stage the factor would account for the maximum of variance. This statistically optimal solution - the method of principal axes [components] - was first proposed by Pearson , and in the 1930's, Hotelling provided the full development of the method." (Harmon, p.4).
An ideal of the Rasch model is that all the information in the data be explained by the latent measures. Then the unexplained part of the data, the residuals, is, by intention, random noise. In particular, after standardization of each residual by its model standard deviation, the noise should follow a random normal distribution. Further, the noise associated with one item is modelled to be independent of the noise associated with any other item. Consequently, all off-diagonal elements of the inter-item correlation matrix are expected to be 0. Empirical inter-item correlations, of course, depart from 0.
What is the expected correlation of an item with itself, the correlations which comprise the main diagonal of the correlation matrix? "The values put in the diagonal of the observed correlation matrix determine what portions of the unit variances are factored into common factors" (Harmon, p. 35). If the values are 1's, then "principal components" analysis results. Lesser values lead to "common factor" analysis. Under Rasch model conditions, the residuals associated with any item have no relationship to any other item. Consequently each item's residuals comprise a unique factor meaning that the values in the diagonal of the correlation matrix would be set to zero. Empirically, however, this is asserting the conclusion that the data conform to the Rasch model. Let us test this conclusion by asserting that all residual variance is due to common factors and place 1's in the diagonal. If the resulting common factors explain nothing more than chance variations in noise across items, then the assertion of communality is refuted and the data conform to the Rasch model. The existence of substantive common factors, however, would indicate the data harbor more than one latent variable.
The aim of the factor analysis of Rasch residuals is thus to attempt to extract the common factor that explains the most residual variance under the hypothesis that there is such a factor. If this factor is discovered to merely "explain" random noise, then there is no meaningful structure in the residuals. In this kind of investigation, neither factor rotation nor oblique axes appear to be relevant. This approach accords with philosopher Karl Popper's "falsification" test of scientific hypotheses.
If the biggest factor is perceived to partition the items into a meaningful structure according to their factor loadings, then there is structure within the items not explained by the primary measurement system. This structure merits further investigation, and also prompts inspection of lesser factors.
The impact of a residual factor on the measurement system can be
easily determined. Extract two subsets of items representing the
opposite poles of the factor. Measure each subject on each subset
of items. Cross-plot the subject measures. The shape of the plot
indicates the extent to which the structure in the residuals is
perturbing the measurement of the subjects. Plot each item's
subset difficulty against its original difficulty to see in what
manner the item construct is being distorted. Only perturbation
that has impact on the empirical meaning or use of the measures is
John Michael Linacre
Harmon, H. H. (1960) Modern Factor Analysis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Structure in Rasch residuals: Why principal components analysis (PCA)? Linacre J.M. Rasch Measurement Transactions, 1998, 12:2 p. 636.
|Rasch Measurement Transactions (free, online)||Rasch Measurement research papers (free, online)||Probabilistic Models for Some Intelligence and Attainment Tests, Georg Rasch||Applying the Rasch Model 3rd. Ed., Bond & Fox||Best Test Design, Wright & Stone|
|Rating Scale Analysis, Wright & Masters||Introduction to Rasch Measurement, E. Smith & R. Smith||Introduction to Many-Facet Rasch Measurement, Thomas Eckes||Invariant Measurement: Using Rasch Models in the Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences, George Engelhard, Jr.||Statistical Analyses for Language Testers, Rita Green|
|Rasch Models: Foundations, Recent Developments, and Applications, Fischer & Molenaar||Journal of Applied Measurement||Rasch models for measurement, David Andrich||Constructing Measures, Mark Wilson||Rasch Analysis in the Human Sciences, Boone, Stave, Yale|
|in Spanish:||Análisis de Rasch para todos, Agustín Tristán||Mediciones, Posicionamientos y Diagnósticos Competitivos, Juan Ramón Oreja Rodríguez|
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|Coming Rasch-related Events|
|March 21, 2019, Thur.||13th annual meeting of the UK Rasch user group, Cambridge, UK, http://www.cambridgeassessment.org.uk/events/uk-rasch-user-group-2019|
|April 4 - 8, 2019, Thur.-Mon.||NCME annual meeting, Toronto, Canada,https://ncme.connectedcommunity.org/meetings/annual|
|April 5 - 9, 2019, Fri.-Tue.||AERA annual meeting, Toronto, Canada,www.aera.net/Events-Meetings/Annual-Meeting|
|April 12, 2019, Fri.||On-line course: Understanding Rasch Measurement Theory - Master's Level (G. Masters), https://www.acer.org/au/professional-learning/postgraduate/rasch|
|May 24 - June 21, 2019, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|May 22 - 30, 2019, Wed.-Thu.||Measuring and scale construction (with the Rasch Model), University of Manchester, England, https://www.cmist.manchester.ac.uk/study/short/intermediate/measurement-with-the-rasch-model/|
|June 4 - 7, 2019, Tue.-Fri.||In-Person Italian Rasch Analysis Workshop based on RUMM (Fabio La Porta and Serena Caselli; entirely in Italian). Prof David Andrich from Western Australia University will be hosted by the workshop. For enquiries and registration email to firstname.lastname@example.org|
|June 17-19, 2019, Mon.-Wed.||In-person workshop, Melbourne, Australia: Applying the Rasch Model in the Human Sciences: Introduction to Rasch measurement (Trevor Bond, Winsteps), Announcement|
|June 20-21, 2019, Thurs.-Fri.||In-person workshop, Melbourne, Australia: Applying the Rasch Model in the Human Sciences: Advanced Rasch measurement with Facets (Trevor Bond, Facets), Announcement|
|June 28 - July 26, 2019, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Further Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|July 2-5, 2019, Tue.-Fri.||2019 International Measurement Confederation (IMEKO) Joint Symposium, St. Petersburg, Russia,https://imeko19-spb.org|
|July 11-12 & 15-19, 2019, Thu.-Fri.||A Course in Rasch Measurement Theory (D.Andrich), University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia, flyer - http://www.education.uwa.edu.au/ppl/courses|
|Aug 5 - 10, 2019, Mon.-Sat.||6th International Summer School "Applied Psychometrics in Psychology and Education", Institute of Education at HSE University Moscow, Russia.https://ioe.hse.ru/en/announcements/248134963.html|
|Aug. 9 - Sept. 6, 2019, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Many-Facet Rasch Measurement (E. Smith, Facets), www.statistics.com|
|Aug. 14 - 16, 2019. Wed.-Fri.||An Introduction to Rasch Measurement: Theory and Applications (workshop led by Richard M. Smith) https://www.hkr.se/pmhealth2019rs|
|August 25-30, 2019, Sun.-Fri.||Pacific Rim Objective Measurement Society (PROMS) 2019, Surabaya, Indonesia https://proms.promsociety.org/2019/|
|Oct. 11 - Nov. 8, 2019, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|Nov. 3 - Nov. 4, 2019, Sun.-Mon.||International Outcome Measurement Conference, Chicago, IL,http://jampress.org/iomc2019.htm|
|Jan. 24 - Feb. 21, 2020, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|May 22 - June 19, 2020, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|June 26 - July 24, 2020, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Further Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|Aug. 7 - Sept. 4, 2020, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Many-Facet Rasch Measurement (E. Smith, Facets), www.statistics.com|
|Oct. 9 - Nov. 6, 2020, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|June 25 - July 23, 2021, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Further Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
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