Here is Rasch's version of the familiar Rasch model: (Rasch, 1980, p. 168):
Here is Zermelo's (1929) model:
Both are multiplicative forms of the Rasch model. What is the difference? Rasch is contrasting persons with items. Zermelo is modeling paired comparisons. ur and us are the strengths of two chess players. Zermelo notes that this model converts the strengths of the chess-players into probabilities, urs. These strengths are estimated from their tournaments scores. A draw is accommodated by adding 0.5 to the player's raw score. Zermelo omits to mention how he would use his model to predict draws. In current practice, the prediction of draws is facilitated by using a rating-scale model (RMT 11:3, p. 584). Zermelo, however, perceives that his model is robust against unplayed games (missing data) and able to accommodate linked tournaments! (Probably the first time these attributes of a Rasch model are noticed.)
Why has Zermelo's model been ignored? His estimation technique is arduous, but worse, his explanation of the inferential meaning of the parameters is deficient. He fails to emphasize that ur /us are the odds of success of player r relative to player s. Further, his paper lacks the fundamental insight that loge(ur) linearizes "Player strength", permitting the production of a useful picture. The Figure shows such a picture, plotted from Zermelo's own example analysis, which, we can see, lacks the drama which was present at the Tournament (Soltis, 1975). Zermelo's results are the same as those obtained using Facets with a dichotomous model and half-weighting of draws. A modern analyst, however, is more likely to use a rating scale model, so that draws can be predicted explicitly. For comparison, the player measures for a paired rating-scale model are shown in the Figure and are seen to differ little from Zermelo's estimates.
When Bradley and Terry (1952) independently formulated Zermelo's model, they observed that: "If the estimates are converted to logarithms, the values loge [ur] occur on a linear scale and permit overall comparisons of the experimental treatments [or chess players]. Any considerations of differences among treatments [or players] should be based on the values of the log [ur]'s." (p. 326)
Bradley, R.A., and Terry, M.E. Rank analysis of incomplete block designs. I. The method of paired comparisons, Biometrika. 1952, 39, 324-45.
Soltis, A. (1975) The Great Chess Tournaments and Their Stories. Radnor, Pa.: Chilton.
Zermelo, E. (1929) The calculation of tournament results as a maximum-likelihood problem [German]. Mathematische Zeitschrift, 29, 436-460.
Was the Rasch model Almost the Zermelo model? Zermelo, E. Rasch Measurement Transactions, 2000, 14:2 p. 754.
Please help with Standard Dataset 4: Andrich Rating Scale Model
|Rasch Measurement Transactions (free, online)||Rasch Measurement research papers (free, online)||Probabilistic Models for Some Intelligence and Attainment Tests, Georg Rasch||Applying the Rasch Model 3rd. Ed., Bond & Fox||Best Test Design, Wright & Stone|
|Rating Scale Analysis, Wright & Masters||Introduction to Rasch Measurement, E. Smith & R. Smith||Introduction to Many-Facet Rasch Measurement, Thomas Eckes||Invariant Measurement: Using Rasch Models in the Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences, George Engelhard, Jr.||Statistical Analyses for Language Testers, Rita Green|
|Rasch Models: Foundations, Recent Developments, and Applications, Fischer & Molenaar||Journal of Applied Measurement||Rasch models for measurement, David Andrich||Constructing Measures, Mark Wilson||Rasch Analysis in the Human Sciences, Boone, Stave, Yale|
|in Spanish:||Análisis de Rasch para todos, Agustín Tristán||Mediciones, Posicionamientos y Diagnósticos Competitivos, Juan Ramón Oreja Rodríguez|
|Forum||Rasch Measurement Forum to discuss any Rasch-related topic|
Go to Top of Page
Go to index of all Rasch Measurement Transactions
AERA members: Join the Rasch Measurement SIG and receive the printed version of RMT
Some back issues of RMT are available as bound volumes
Subscribe to Journal of Applied Measurement
Go to Institute for Objective Measurement Home Page. The Rasch Measurement SIG (AERA) thanks the Institute for Objective Measurement for inviting the publication of Rasch Measurement Transactions on the Institute's website, www.rasch.org.
|Coming Rasch-related Events|
|March 31, 2017, Fri.||Conference: 11th UK Rasch Day, Warwick, UK, www.rasch.org.uk|
|April 2-3, 2017, Sun.-Mon.||Conference: Validity Evidence for Measurement in Mathematics Education (V-M2Ed), San Antonio, TX, Information|
|April 26-30, 2017, Wed.-Sun.||NCME, San Antonio, TX, www.ncme.org - April 29: Ben Wright book|
|April 27 - May 1, 2017, Thur.-Mon.||AERA, San Antonio, TX, www.aera.net|
|May 26 - June 23, 2017, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|June 30 - July 29, 2017, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Further Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|July 31 - Aug. 3, 2017, Mon.-Thurs.||Joint IMEKO TC1-TC7-TC13 Symposium 2017: Measurement Science challenges in Natural and Social Sciences, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, imeko-tc7-rio.org.br|
|Aug. 7-9, 2017, Mon-Wed.||In-person workshop and research coloquium: Effect size of family and school indexes in writing competence using TERCE data (C. Pardo, A. Atorressi, Winsteps), Bariloche Argentina. Carlos Pardo, Universidad Catòlica de Colombia|
|Aug. 7-9, 2017, Mon-Wed.||PROMS 2017: Pacific Rim Objective Measurement Symposium, Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia, proms.promsociety.org/2017/|
|Aug. 10, 2017, Thurs.||In-person Winsteps Training Workshop (M. Linacre, Winsteps), Sydney, Australia. www.winsteps.com/sydneyws.htm|
|Aug. 11 - Sept. 8, 2017, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Many-Facet Rasch Measurement (E. Smith, Facets), www.statistics.com|
|Aug. 18-21, 2017, Fri.-Mon.||IACAT 2017: International Association for Computerized Adaptive Testing, Niigata, Japan, iacat.org|
|Sept. 15-16, 2017, Fri.-Sat.||IOMC 2017: International Outcome Measurement Conference, Chicago, jampress.org/iomc2017.htm|
|Oct. 13 - Nov. 10, 2017, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|Jan. 5 - Feb. 2, 2018, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|Jan. 10-16, 2018, Wed.-Tues.||In-person workshop: Advanced Course in Rasch Measurement Theory and the application of RUMM2030, Perth, Australia (D. Andrich), Announcement|
|Jan. 17-19, 2018, Wed.-Fri.||Rasch Conference: Seventh International Conference on Probabilistic Models for Measurement, Matilda Bay Club, Perth, Australia, Website|
|May 25 - June 22, 2018, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|June 29 - July 27, 2018, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Further Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|Aug. 10 - Sept. 7, 2018, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Many-Facet Rasch Measurement (E. Smith, Facets), www.statistics.com|
|Oct. 12 - Nov. 9, 2018, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|The HTML to add "Coming Rasch-related Events" to your webpage is:|
The URL of this page is www.rasch.org/rmt/rmt142k.htm