Key Events in Rasch Measurement History

1960: Rasch, G. U. Chicago, March-June. "Probabilistic Measurement Models". 24 lectures introduce Rasch measurement to social science and statistics faculty and students. Wright, stymied by the sample dependence of factor analysis, involves Rasch in developing a measurement model for semantic differential ratings which would enable "sample-free variable" definitions of semantic variables.

Rasch, G. U. California, June-July. "On General Laws and Meaning of Measurement in Psychology". Defines objectivity and a multi- dimensional rating scale model which separates parameters. Proceedings of the Fourth Berkeley Symposium on Mathematical Statistics and Probability (1961), 321-333.

1963: Rasch, G. Washington DC. "The Poisson Process as a Model for a Diversity of Behavior Phenomenon". Shows psychologists how to construct objective measures with a Poisson model. International Congress of Psychology.

Sitgreaves, R. Columbia U. Reviews Rasch (1960) as "a substantial contribution to model building in tests of ability". Psychometrika, 219-220

Tucker, L. U. Illinois. Cites Rasch (1960) as "sophisticated developments in mathematical test theory. . . the model for items in a test is a combination of a probabilistic model and a Guttman Scale model". Annual Review Psychology, 356.

Blommers. Iowa State U. , Autumn. Begins a series of dissertations (by Brooks 1964, Ramseyer 1965, Maxey 1967) on the utility of Rasch sample-free calibration for educational and psychological tests.

1964: Choppin B, Panchapakesan N, Wright BD. MESA, U. Chicago, July-December. Write FORTRAN programs for Rasch (1960) estimation algorithms:LOG (p. 80-91), PAIR (p. 171-172) and FCON (fully conditional p. 178-181)

Wright, B. MESA, U. Chicago, October. Begins annual courses on the theory and practice of Rasch measurement for Education and Psychology students.

Coombs, C. U. Michigan. Refers to Rasch (1960) as a "major contribution and a new approach in psychometrics". A Theory of Data, 238.

1965: Choppin, Panchapakesan, Wright. MESA, U. Chicago, January-March. Develop JMLE (UCON), the "joint" unconditional marginal maximum likelihood MMLE method suggested by Rasch (1960) equation 6. 22 (p. 182).

Loevinger J, Choppin, Blommers, Ramsayer, Brooks, Wright. Chicago, April. "Symposium on Sample Free Probability Models for Psychosocial Measurement". Explain models, show with real and simulated data that LOG, PAIR, FCON and UCON yield equivalent results and demonstrate sample-free calibration for various educational and psychological tests. Midwest Psychological Association.

Loevinger, J. Washington U. . "Person and Population as Psychometric Concepts". Describes Rasch (1960) as enabling a "more rigorous kind of generalization than Cronbach, Rajaratnam and Gleser. When [Rasch's] model fits, the results are independent of the sample of persons and of the particular items within broad limits. Within those limits, generality is, one might say, complete". Psychological Review, 143-155.

1966: Kearney. U. Queensland, PhD. "The Cognitive Ability of Aboriginal Australian Children".

1967: Wright. U. Wisconsin, March. "Rasch Model for Item Analysis". Shows deduction of parameter separation and demonstrates sample-free item calibration and test-free person measurement for Law School Admission Test data. Psychometric Society.

Wright. New York, October. "Sample-free Test Calibration and Person Measurement". Defines objective measurement and shows its application to Law School Admission Test data. Proceedings of the ETS 1967 Invitational Conference on Testing Problems (1968), 85-101.

Keats. Australia. "Test Theory". Connects Rasch (1960) model with simultaneous ordering of subjects and stimuli and hence conjoint measurement. Concludes that only the Rasch model can provide invariant parameter estimates. Annual Review of Psychology, 217-238.

1968: Rasch. U. Chicago, September 1968 - March 1969. Alexander White Visiting Professor in Education and Statistics. Teaches graduate students in Education, Psychology and Statistics.

Choppin. Cornell U. "An Item Bank Using Sample-free Calibration". Derives pairwise item banking (Pairwise Maximum Likelihood Estimation, PMLE). Shows how item difficulties estimated from different samples can be calibrated onto a single common scale. Nature, 870-872.

Anderson, Kearney, Everett. Queensland. "An Evaluation of Rasch's Structural Model for Test Items". Shows sample independence for intelligence test data. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 231-238.

1969: Keesling, Schmidt, Bramble, Bradford, Rasch, Wright. Los Angeles, February. "Sample-Free Test Calibration and Person Measurement in Educational Research". 5 day professional training session for 50 psychometricians from US, Canada, Britain and Australia, including Angoff, Bashaw, Beard, Brink, Durovic, Farr, Hambleton, Harris, Lenke, Rentz, Start, Uhl, Woodcock. American Educational Research Association.

Woodcock, R. Circle Pines, March-May. Builds a 209 item elementary mathematics item bank and invents the KeyMath recording form which reports item difficulties, child responses, grade norms and a 14 subscale criterion-referenced profile on one page. Connolly, Nachtman, Pritchett. "Keymath: Diagnostic Arithmetic Test". American Guidance Service, 1971.

Panchapakesan, N. MESA, U. Chicago, PhD. "The Simple Logistic Model and Mental Measurement". Shows with real and simulated data that the specification of uniform discrimination need not disrupt Rasch analysis of real data. [First of 53 Rasch MESA PhDs by 6/96. ]

Wright, Panchapakesan. MESA. U. Chicago. "A Procedure for Sample Free Item Analysis", Educational and Psychological Measurement (EPM), 23-48. The Joint Maximum Likelihood Estimation (JMLE) / Unconditional Maximum Likelihood Estimation (UCON) method.

1970: Bashaw, L., Rentz. U. Georgia. Rasch calibrate and vertically equate Otis-Lennon Mental Ability Tests. Harcourt, Brace & World.

1971: Start. Slough, January. Introduces Rasch model to the National Foundation for Educational Research of England and Wales (NFER).

MESA, U. Chicago, March. UCON programs working at:

Universities of: Georgia, Florida State, California, Kentucky, Wisconsin, S. Carolina, Indiana, Michigan State, Maryland, Institutes: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, Rhode Island College Education Services Center andGovernment Agencies: U. S. Civil Service Commission, N. Y. State Civil Service, U. S. Coast Guard, Companies: Harcourt, Brace, World, National Computer Systems.

1972: Cohen, L. U. Southampton. Develops PROX algorithm for normally distributed items or persons. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology 32:113-120, 1979.

Brink. California. "Rasch's Logistic Model vs. the Guttman Model". EPM32:921-927.

Andersen, E.B. (1972). The numerical solution of a set of conditional estimation equations. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society (Series B), 34(1), 42-54.
The Conditional Maximum Likelihood Estimation (CMLE) method.

1973: Rasch, G. Chicago, March. "Problems of Objectivity in Psychometrics". Plenary address to the Psychometric Society.

Passmore. U. Minnesota. "Objective Measurement in Occupational Education". Journal of Industrial Teacher Education, 10, (4), 15-21.

Passmore. U. Minnesota. "References to the One Parameter Rasch Logistic Measurement Model". A bibliography of 96 theoretical and empirical studies of which 65 are by ABA authors. [Updated to 144 references and published in "Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, Volume 6" (1976)]. American Psychological Association (APA).

1974: Douglas, G., Wright. MESA, U. Chicago. Develop ICON, a simplified conditional algorithm and show for simulated and real data that: UCON > ICON > FCON in speed, UCON > ICON = FCON in long test accuracy, ICON = FCON > UCON in short test accuracy. Applied Psychological Measurement (APM) (1977a), 281-294. EPM (1977b), 573-586.

Choppin, B. NFER, Slough. "The Introduction of New Science Curricula in England and Wales". Comparative Education Review, 18, No. 2

Portland Public Schools, Oregon. Use Rasch analysis to build vertically equated item banks and system-wide testing programs in mathematics, reading and language arts.

1975: Choppin, B. NFER, Slough. "Recent developments in Item banking". de Gruiter, van der Kamp. Advances in Psychological and Educational Measurement.

1976: Rentz, Bashaw. U. Georgia. "The National Reference Scale for Reading: An Application of the Rasch Model". Reports 1975 development of a National Reference Scale by the Educational Research Laboratory. Journal of Educational Measurement (JEM), 14, 161-80.

1977: Woodcock, Johnson. Chicago. Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery. A battery of 27 individually administered tests of cognitive ability, achievement and interest. Riverside.

Cormier. "A Study of the Applicability of a Truly Objective Measurement Model in Medical Education". Concludes from Medical College Admission test analyses that the Rasch model would bring about better evaluation in medical education and establish a basis for sample-free standards. Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual Conference on Research in Medical Education.

1978: Choppin, Wilmott, Elliott, Wright. U. Leeds, September. Seminar on"Objective Measurement in Education". First conference of the British Educational Research Association.

Andrich, D. Perth. "A Rating Formulation for Ordered Response Categories". Psychometrika, 561-574.

Andrich, D. Perth. "Relationships between the Thurstone and Rasch approaches to Item Scaling. " Applied Psychological Measurement, 2, 451-462.

Choppin, B. (ed). Slough. "Psychometric Developments Relating to Item Banking". NFER.

Hashway, R. New York. "Objective Mental Measurement". Praeger.

1979: Wright, Stone. MESA, U. Chicago. Best Test Design. MESA Press.

1980: Wright. Chicago. Foreword and Afterword for 2nd printing of Rasch's"Probabilistic Models". U. Chicago Press.

Wright B. D. (1996) Key events in Rasch measurement history in America, Britain and Australia (1960-1980). Rasch Measurement Transactions 10:2 p. 494-496.

Key events in Rasch measurement history in America, Britain and Australia, 1960-1980. Wright B. D. … Rasch Measurement Transactions, 1996, 10:2 p. 494-496

Rasch Publications
Rasch Measurement Transactions (free, online) Rasch Measurement research papers (free, online) Probabilistic Models for Some Intelligence and Attainment Tests, Georg Rasch Applying the Rasch Model 3rd. Ed., Bond & Fox Best Test Design, Wright & Stone
Rating Scale Analysis, Wright & Masters Introduction to Rasch Measurement, E. Smith & R. Smith Introduction to Many-Facet Rasch Measurement, Thomas Eckes Invariant Measurement: Using Rasch Models in the Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences, George Engelhard, Jr. Statistical Analyses for Language Testers, Rita Green
Rasch Models: Foundations, Recent Developments, and Applications, Fischer & Molenaar Journal of Applied Measurement Rasch models for measurement, David Andrich Constructing Measures, Mark Wilson Rasch Analysis in the Human Sciences, Boone, Stave, Yale
in Spanish: Análisis de Rasch para todos, Agustín Tristán Mediciones, Posicionamientos y Diagnósticos Competitivos, Juan Ramón Oreja Rodríguez

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