Statistical information is a concept originated by Ronald Fisher (1922, 1925). The information in an observation quantifies how much we learn about the modeled variable from that observation.
There are many types of information in an observation. If we discover from an observation that an MCQ item has an incorrect scoring key, then we have acquired substantive information that leads us to reconsider all statistical information acquired for that item to date. Similarly, if we conclude from an observation that a person is applying a response set, mechanically marking the same response option to several items, then that behavioral information leads us to reconsider the statistical information acquired for that person.
Suppose the data do fit the model. Then we would expect that each extra observation would give us more statistical information, making our conclusions more secure. For the Rasch model, this is always true. The statistical information, Ini,in the dichotomous response (right or wrong) of person n to item i is:
where Pni is the probability of success. If the item is very hard then Pni is small, and there is little statistical information (but the opportunity for plenty of misfit if the person succeeds!). Similarly, if the item is very easy, then (1-Pni) is small, also yielding little information. Ini is largest when Pni=0.5, i.e., when the item is targeted on the person. It is with this targeting that we have the greatest uncertainty about how the person will answer, and so the greatest opportunity to learn more about the relationship between the person's ability and the item's difficulty.
When an observation contains negative information, then we know less about the variable after collecting the observation than we did before, even when the data fit the model. Though this paradox cannot occur with the Rasch model, it occurs in most 3PL (3-PL, three parameter logistic model) analyses.
Imagine an ideal adaptive test. For both 3PL and Rasch, when a person fails an item, then it is likely that the item is hard for that person, and so an easier item is administered next.
But what if the person succeeds? Under Rasch model conditions, it is likely the item is easy for that person, and so a harder item is administered next. Under 3PL conditions, however, a quandary arises. The person succeeds, but why? If success is because the item is easy for that person, then a harder item is administered next. But if success is due to lucky guessing, then the item is too hard for the person. (There's no point to guessing on easy items!) This means that an easier item should be administered next. So 3PL requires us to administer both a harder and an easier item next leaving us more uncertain, i.e., less statistically informed, about the ability of the person relative to the difficulty of the item than before the observation was made! We have lost information, i.e., we have acquired negative statistical information! (See Bradlow, 1996, for a mathematical formulation of this paradox.)
Of course, the quandary can be avoided by arranging targeting and test conditions so that respondents have little incentive to guess. This also removes any justification for including a guessing component in the statistical model. The few remaining lucky guesses are readily identifiable as misfits to a guessingless-model. These can then be dropped from the data for the purposes of calibrating the items, or included for the purposes of measuring and diagnosing person performance.
Benjamin D. Wright
Bradlow E.T. 1996. Teacher's corner: Negative information and the three-parameter logistic model. Journal of Educational Statistics 21:2 179-185.
Fisher R.A. 1922. On the mathematical foundations of theoretical statistics.Proceedings of the Royal Society 222: 309-368.
Fisher R.A. 1925. Theory of statistical estimation. Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 22: 700-725. Also in Collected Papers of R.A. Fisher, ed.J.H. Bennett. Adelaide: The University of Adelaide.
Wright B.D. (1996) Negative information. Rasch Measurement Transactions 10:2 p. 504.
Negative information. Wright B.D. Rasch Measurement Transactions, 1996, 10:2 p. 504
|Rasch Measurement Transactions (free, online)||Rasch Measurement research papers (free, online)||Probabilistic Models for Some Intelligence and Attainment Tests, Georg Rasch||Applying the Rasch Model 3rd. Ed., Bond & Fox||Best Test Design, Wright & Stone|
|Rating Scale Analysis, Wright & Masters||Introduction to Rasch Measurement, E. Smith & R. Smith||Introduction to Many-Facet Rasch Measurement, Thomas Eckes||Invariant Measurement: Using Rasch Models in the Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences, George Engelhard, Jr.||Statistical Analyses for Language Testers, Rita Green|
|Rasch Models: Foundations, Recent Developments, and Applications, Fischer & Molenaar||Journal of Applied Measurement||Rasch models for measurement, David Andrich||Constructing Measures, Mark Wilson||Rasch Analysis in the Human Sciences, Boone, Stave, Yale|
|in Spanish:||Análisis de Rasch para todos, Agustín Tristán||Mediciones, Posicionamientos y Diagnósticos Competitivos, Juan Ramón Oreja Rodríguez|
|Forum||Rasch Measurement Forum to discuss any Rasch-related topic|
Go to Top of Page
Go to index of all Rasch Measurement Transactions
AERA members: Join the Rasch Measurement SIG and receive the printed version of RMT
Some back issues of RMT are available as bound volumes
Subscribe to Journal of Applied Measurement
Go to Institute for Objective Measurement Home Page. The Rasch Measurement SIG (AERA) thanks the Institute for Objective Measurement for inviting the publication of Rasch Measurement Transactions on the Institute's website, www.rasch.org.
|Coming Rasch-related Events|
|March 21, 2019, Thur.||13th annual meeting of the UK Rasch user group, Cambridge, UK, http://www.cambridgeassessment.org.uk/events/uk-rasch-user-group-2019|
|April 4 - 8, 2019, Thur.-Mon.||NCME annual meeting, Toronto, Canada,https://ncme.connectedcommunity.org/meetings/annual|
|April 5 - 9, 2019, Fri.-Tue.||AERA annual meeting, Toronto, Canada,www.aera.net/Events-Meetings/Annual-Meeting|
|April 12, 2019, Fri.||On-line course: Understanding Rasch Measurement Theory - Master's Level (G. Masters), https://www.acer.org/au/professional-learning/postgraduate/rasch|
|May 24 - June 21, 2019, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|May 22 - 30, 2019, Wed.-Thu.||Measuring and scale construction (with the Rasch Model), University of Manchester, England, https://www.cmist.manchester.ac.uk/study/short/intermediate/measurement-with-the-rasch-model/|
|June 4 - 7, 2019, Tue.-Fri.||In-Person Italian Rasch Analysis Workshop based on RUMM (entirely in Italian). For enquiries and registration email to email@example.com.|
|June 17-19, 2019, Mon.-Wed.||In-person workshop, Melbourne, Australia: Applying the Rasch Model in the Human Sciences: Introduction to Rasch measurement (Trevor Bond, Winsteps), Announcement|
|June 20-21, 2019, Thurs.-Fri.||In-person workshop, Melbourne, Australia: Applying the Rasch Model in the Human Sciences: Advanced Rasch measurement with Facets (Trevor Bond, Facets), Announcement|
|June 28 - July 26, 2019, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Further Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|July 2-5, 2019, Tue.-Fri.||2019 International Measurement Confederation (IMEKO) Joint Symposium, St. Petersburg, Russia,https://imeko19-spb.org|
|July 11-12 & 15-19, 2019, Thu.-Fri.||A Course in Rasch Measurement Theory (D.Andrich), University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia, flyer - http://www.education.uwa.edu.au/ppl/courses|
|Aug 5 - 10, 2019, Mon.-Sat.||6th International Summer School "Applied Psychometrics in Psychology and Education", Institute of Education at HSE University Moscow, Russia.https://ioe.hse.ru/en/announcements/248134963.html|
|Aug. 9 - Sept. 6, 2019, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Many-Facet Rasch Measurement (E. Smith, Facets), www.statistics.com|
|August 25-30, 2019, Sun.-Fri.||Pacific Rim Objective Measurement Society (PROMS) 2019, Surabaya, Indonesia https://proms.promsociety.org/2019/|
|Oct. 11 - Nov. 8, 2019, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|Nov. 3 - Nov. 4, 2019, Sun.-Mon.||International Outcome Measurement Conference, Chicago, IL,http://jampress.org/iomc2019.htm|
|Jan. 24 - Feb. 21, 2020, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|May 22 - June 19, 2020, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|June 26 - July 24, 2020, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Further Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|Aug. 7 - Sept. 4, 2020, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Many-Facet Rasch Measurement (E. Smith, Facets), www.statistics.com|
|Oct. 9 - Nov. 6, 2020, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|June 25 - July 23, 2021, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Further Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
The URL of this page is www.rasch.org/rmt/rmt102r.htm