Alternation of positively and negatively worded questions on attitude surveys is frequently employed to combat response sets in the respondents. The ratings on negatively worded items are reversed so that a total positively-oriented score is obtained.
But is negative the opposite of positive? This was central to an investigation of the relationships between therapists and their mentally-ill clients. A survey instrument of 83 items was constructed based on phrases clients use in talking about their relationships with their therapists. 33 items probed negative interactions and 50 probed positive interactions. Negatively worded items were reverse scored.
Rasch analysis of the responses of 211 clients to the survey produced an item hierarchy which confirmed the expectation that it is generally easier not to say negative things about a therapist than to say positive things. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) factor analysis of residuals, however, displays more. [Winsteps Table 23]
In the Figure, the x-axis corresponds to the variable. The negatively worded items, N, are relatively easy to deny, and so are to the left. The positively worded items, P, are harder to affirm. According to Rasch model specifications, residuals from the observations, after removing that part explained by the measures, should comprise random noise. Principal components analysis of those residuals across items, however, shows a clear pattern in the loadings. The first factor (explaining 13% of the variance) is the y-axis in the Figure. Positive and negative items are stratified.
The connection between positively and negatively worded items is not merely the unidimensional variable of a "more" and "less" constructive professional relationship (the x-axis). The y-axis indicates that the personal relationship between therapist and client skews the responses. Thus negative and positive items probe similar, but distinct, aspects of the therapeutic situation. To ignore this might be to overlook the critical element in successful therapy.
School of Social Service Administration
University of Chicago
Positive vs. Negative Wording. Yamaguchi J. Rasch Measurement Transactions, 1997, 11:2 p. 567.
|Rasch Measurement Transactions (free, online)||Rasch Measurement research papers (free, online)||Probabilistic Models for Some Intelligence and Attainment Tests, Georg Rasch||Applying the Rasch Model 3rd. Ed., Bond & Fox||Best Test Design, Wright & Stone|
|Rating Scale Analysis, Wright & Masters||Introduction to Rasch Measurement, E. Smith & R. Smith||Introduction to Many-Facet Rasch Measurement, Thomas Eckes||Invariant Measurement: Using Rasch Models in the Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences, George Engelhard, Jr.||Statistical Analyses for Language Testers, Rita Green|
|Rasch Models: Foundations, Recent Developments, and Applications, Fischer & Molenaar||Journal of Applied Measurement||Rasch models for measurement, David Andrich||Constructing Measures, Mark Wilson||Rasch Analysis in the Human Sciences, Boone, Stave, Yale|
|in Spanish:||Análisis de Rasch para todos, Agustín Tristán||Mediciones, Posicionamientos y Diagnósticos Competitivos, Juan Ramón Oreja Rodríguez|
|Forum||Rasch Measurement Forum to discuss any Rasch-related topic|
Go to Top of Page
Go to index of all Rasch Measurement Transactions
AERA members: Join the Rasch Measurement SIG and receive the printed version of RMT
Some back issues of RMT are available as bound volumes
Subscribe to Journal of Applied Measurement
Go to Institute for Objective Measurement Home Page. The Rasch Measurement SIG (AERA) thanks the Institute for Objective Measurement for inviting the publication of Rasch Measurement Transactions on the Institute's website, www.rasch.org.
|Coming Rasch-related Events|
|Aug. 14 - 16, 2019. Wed.-Fri.||An Introduction to Rasch Measurement: Theory and Applications (workshop led by Richard M. Smith) https://www.hkr.se/pmhealth2019rs|
|August 25-30, 2019, Sun.-Fri.||Pacific Rim Objective Measurement Society (PROMS) 2019, Surabaya, Indonesia https://proms.promsociety.org/2019/|
|Oct. 11 - Nov. 8, 2019, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|Nov. 3 - Nov. 4, 2019, Sun.-Mon.||International Outcome Measurement Conference, Chicago, IL,http://jampress.org/iomc2019.htm|
|Jan. 24 - Feb. 21, 2020, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|May 22 - June 19, 2020, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|June 26 - July 24, 2020, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Further Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|Aug. 7 - Sept. 4, 2020, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Many-Facet Rasch Measurement (E. Smith, Facets), www.statistics.com|
|Oct. 9 - Nov. 6, 2020, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|June 25 - July 23, 2021, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Further Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
The URL of this page is www.rasch.org/rmt/rmt112h.htm