# Log-linear (or Logistic) Regression vs. Logit-linear Rasch

Estimation Log-linear Rasch (CMLE) Logit-linear Rasch (JMLE)
Data matrix Contingency table: one cell per response string and demographic combination:
4 dichotomies + 2 genders: 2x2x2x2x2 = 32 cells (see TGK)
3 4-category items: 4x4x4 = 64 (Agresti)
Response strings for all subjects. Persons coded with demographic variables.
Missing data Must be imputed or subject omitted Merely lessens precision
Basic element Frequency of persons in cell: e.g., (TGK)
F{X1010M} for response string "1010", Male
Observation: Xni
Model Loge(F{X1010}) =
1*E1 + 0*E2 + 1*E3 + 0*E4 + š(1+0+1+0) (see TGK)
loge(Pni1/Pni0) = Bn + Ei
Interaction terms Yes, but no longer Rasch model Yes, post-hoc to explain residuals
Constraints To eliminate terms, and establish local origin. To establish local origin
Estimation bias Negligible - equivalent to Conditional Maximum Likelihood (CMLE) Rasch Up to 2, corrected by (L-1)/L
Global fit Decisive as to acceptability of model. Uninformative
Items
Maximum items 13, i.e., 213 cells >3,000
Item calibrations Yes, but relative to the anchored item Yes, with mean calibration of zero or anchor item(s).
Item S.E. Test-dependent, because relative to anchored item. Anchored item has S.E.=0 As test-independent as possible. S.E.s reported for all items.
Item fit diagnosis Unexpected cell frequencies, summarized by tests of local independence (see TGK) Unexpected response patterns, summarized by sums of residuals
Persons
Maximum persons Unlimited, because accumulated in cells >20,000
Person measures Only obtained by secondary analysis Yes, modeled
Person S.E. Obtained by secondary analysis Yes, modeled
Person fit diagnosis Unexpected cell frequencies:
Agresti: 8 strings of "322", but 2.9 expected
Unexpected response patterns:
in Agresti data: pattern "122".
Unexpected responses No Yes, by residual size
Best for
Item calibration <=13 items with local S.E.s >=5 items with general S.E.s
Person measurement No Yes
Misfit diagnosis No Yes
Software Standard statistical: SAS, SPSS Custom: BIGSTEPS, QUEST

John Michael Linacre

Agresti: Agresti A (1993) Computing conditional maximum likelihood estimates for generalized Rasch models using simple log-linear models with diagonals parameters. Scandinavian Journal of Statistics 20(1) 63-71.

TGK: TenVergert E, Gillespie M, & Kingma J (1993) Testing the assumptions and interpreting the results of the Rasch model using log-linear procedures in SPSS. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments & Computers 25(3) 350-359.

Log-linear (logistic) regression vs. Logit-linear Rasch. Linacre J.M. … Rasch Measurement Transactions, 1997, 11:3 p. 586.

Rasch Publications
Rasch Measurement Transactions (free, online) Rasch Measurement research papers (free, online) Probabilistic Models for Some Intelligence and Attainment Tests, Georg Rasch Applying the Rasch Model 3rd. Ed., Bond & Fox Best Test Design, Wright & Stone
Rating Scale Analysis, Wright & Masters Introduction to Rasch Measurement, E. Smith & R. Smith Introduction to Many-Facet Rasch Measurement, Thomas Eckes Invariant Measurement: Using Rasch Models in the Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences, George Engelhard, Jr. Statistical Analyses for Language Testers, Rita Green
Rasch Models: Foundations, Recent Developments, and Applications, Fischer & Molenaar Journal of Applied Measurement Rasch models for measurement, David Andrich Constructing Measures, Mark Wilson Rasch Analysis in the Human Sciences, Boone, Stave, Yale
in Spanish: Análisis de Rasch para todos, Agustín Tristán Mediciones, Posicionamientos y Diagnósticos Competitivos, Juan Ramón Oreja Rodríguez

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Coming Rasch-related Events
March 21, 2019, Thur. 13th annual meeting of the UK Rasch user group, Cambridge, UK, http://www.cambridgeassessment.org.uk/events/uk-rasch-user-group-2019
April 4 - 8, 2019, Thur.-Mon. NCME annual meeting, Toronto, Canada,https://ncme.connectedcommunity.org/meetings/annual
April 5 - 9, 2019, Fri.-Tue. AERA annual meeting, Toronto, Canada,www.aera.net/Events-Meetings/Annual-Meeting
April 12, 2019, Fri. On-line course: Understanding Rasch Measurement Theory - Master's Level (G. Masters), https://www.acer.org/au/professional-learning/postgraduate/rasch
May 24 - June 21, 2019, Fri.-Fri. On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com
May 22 - 30, 2019, Wed.-Thu. Measuring and scale construction (with the Rasch Model), University of Manchester, England, https://www.cmist.manchester.ac.uk/study/short/intermediate/measurement-with-the-rasch-model/
June 4 - 7, 2019, Tue.-Fri.In-Person Italian Rasch Analysis Workshop based on RUMM (Fabio La Porta and Serena Caselli; entirely in Italian). Prof David Andrich from Western Australia University will be hosted by the workshop. For enquiries and registration email to workshop.rasch@gmail.com
June 17-19, 2019, Mon.-Wed. In-person workshop, Melbourne, Australia: Applying the Rasch Model in the Human Sciences: Introduction to Rasch measurement (Trevor Bond, Winsteps), Announcement
June 20-21, 2019, Thurs.-Fri. In-person workshop, Melbourne, Australia: Applying the Rasch Model in the Human Sciences: Advanced Rasch measurement with Facets (Trevor Bond, Facets), Announcement
June 28 - July 26, 2019, Fri.-Fri. On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Further Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com
July 2-5, 2019, Tue.-Fri. 2019 International Measurement Confederation (IMEKO) Joint Symposium, St. Petersburg, Russia,https://imeko19-spb.org
July 11-12 & 15-19, 2019, Thu.-Fri. A Course in Rasch Measurement Theory (D.Andrich), University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia, flyer - http://www.education.uwa.edu.au/ppl/courses
Aug 5 - 10, 2019, Mon.-Sat. 6th International Summer School "Applied Psychometrics in Psychology and Education", Institute of Education at HSE University Moscow, Russia.https://ioe.hse.ru/en/announcements/248134963.html
Aug. 9 - Sept. 6, 2019, Fri.-Fri. On-line workshop: Many-Facet Rasch Measurement (E. Smith, Facets), www.statistics.com
Aug. 14 - 16, 2019. Wed.-Fri. An Introduction to Rasch Measurement: Theory and Applications (workshop led by Richard M. Smith) https://www.hkr.se/pmhealth2019rs
August 25-30, 2019, Sun.-Fri. Pacific Rim Objective Measurement Society (PROMS) 2019, Surabaya, Indonesia https://proms.promsociety.org/2019/
Oct. 11 - Nov. 8, 2019, Fri.-Fri. On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com
Nov. 3 - Nov. 4, 2019, Sun.-Mon. International Outcome Measurement Conference, Chicago, IL,http://jampress.org/iomc2019.htm
Jan. 24 - Feb. 21, 2020, Fri.-Fri. On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com
May 22 - June 19, 2020, Fri.-Fri. On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com
June 26 - July 24, 2020, Fri.-Fri. On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Further Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com
Aug. 7 - Sept. 4, 2020, Fri.-Fri. On-line workshop: Many-Facet Rasch Measurement (E. Smith, Facets), www.statistics.com
Oct. 9 - Nov. 6, 2020, Fri.-Fri. On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com
June 25 - July 23, 2021, Fri.-Fri. On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Further Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com