Stout (1990) discusses a reading comprehension test in which there are several passages and a set of questions relating to each passage. Traditionalists, he asserts, would consider each passage a separate dimension. [Though a far stronger tradition counts correct responses to accumulate a reading ability score.] He then comments "The example, by displaying a test that should be psychometrically labelled as `unidimensional', illustrates our view that minor or idiosyncratic dimensions should be ignored in assessing test dimensionality from the applications viewpoint" (p. 302). This practical view of unidimensionality Stout labels "essential unidimensionality". But Stout's view coincides exactly with Rasch's: "In the first place we must admit that on the whole the [Rasch] model gives a satisfactory description of the [BPP-N] data. The deviations found should therefore not lead us to give up the model at once; we should rather look for technical explanations of them" (Rasch 1992, p.91).
Stout discovers that "essential dimensionality" leads to one unique ordinal scale for each latent variable (p. 311), which is given by the raw scores. He then remarks: "Indeed unless there are solid psychometric grounds for preferring one interval scale over the rest, the situation is one of a unique ordinal scale with the choice of a convenient interval scale left up to the practitioner to be decided on pragmatic grounds" (p. 313).
What intervals scale choices are available to the practitioner? Earlier, Stout quoted Lord and Novick, "A major problem of mental test theory is to determine a good interval scaling to impose when the supporting theory implies only ordinal properties (1968)" (p. 304).
Suppose that a unique rank ordering supports two different linearizations. These linearizations must maintain the rank order, but on their different equal-interval metrics. Rasch (p. 121) uses cubes as an example. Cubes can be rank-ordered in size by volume or by length of a side. These always yield the same rank order. Both volume and side-length are expressed as numbers on linear-appearing scales. Do both linearizations produce interval scales of cubeness? Is the choice of scale merely a pragmatic decision for the practitioner? The crux of the matter is the definition of the latent variable. Let us add a one-unit cube to another cube (in such a way as to maintain cubeness). On which "linear" scale will cube-size increment by 1? Clearly the volume scale, not the side-length scale. This was Norman Campbell's (1920) argument. Interval scaling requires a concatenation rule. The concatenation rule depends on the definition of the variable, e.g., "cubeness". Then there is only one linear scale, which is defined by the concatenation. When any linear scaling (which supports concatenation) has been constructed all other scalings are merely linear transformations. The Rasch model constructs linear scales from raw scores (RMT 3:2, p. 62). It also constructs scales that support concatenation (RMT 2:1 p. 16). So the practitioner's pragmatic choice of a good interval scale is reduced to selecting the local origin and unit size for that Rasch scale.
Stout's attempt to eliminate "extraneous requirements such as Rasch's specific objectivity" (p.304), has served to confirm that specific objectivity is fundamental to measurement. Stout's "essential unidimensionality" is seen to be equivalent to "reasonable fit to the Rasch model."
John Michael Linacre
Campbell N.R. (1920) Physics: the elements. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Lord F.M., Novick M.R. (1968) Statistical Theories of Mental Test Scores. Reading MA: Addison-Wesley.
Stout W.F. (1990) A new item response theory modeling approach with applications to unidimensionality assessment and ability estimation. Psychometrika 55, 2, 293-325.
Rank-ordered raw scores imply the Rasch model.Wright B.D. Rasch Measurement Transactions, 1998, 12:2 p. 637-8.
|Rasch Measurement Transactions (free, online)||Rasch Measurement research papers (free, online)||Probabilistic Models for Some Intelligence and Attainment Tests, Georg Rasch||Applying the Rasch Model 3rd. Ed., Bond & Fox||Best Test Design, Wright & Stone|
|Rating Scale Analysis, Wright & Masters||Introduction to Rasch Measurement, E. Smith & R. Smith||Introduction to Many-Facet Rasch Measurement, Thomas Eckes||Invariant Measurement: Using Rasch Models in the Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences, George Engelhard, Jr.||Statistical Analyses for Language Testers, Rita Green|
|Rasch Models: Foundations, Recent Developments, and Applications, Fischer & Molenaar||Journal of Applied Measurement||Rasch models for measurement, David Andrich||Constructing Measures, Mark Wilson||Rasch Analysis in the Human Sciences, Boone, Stave, Yale|
|in Spanish:||Análisis de Rasch para todos, Agustín Tristán||Mediciones, Posicionamientos y Diagnósticos Competitivos, Juan Ramón Oreja Rodríguez|
|Forum||Rasch Measurement Forum to discuss any Rasch-related topic|
Go to Top of Page
Go to index of all Rasch Measurement Transactions
AERA members: Join the Rasch Measurement SIG and receive the printed version of RMT
Some back issues of RMT are available as bound volumes
Subscribe to Journal of Applied Measurement
Go to Institute for Objective Measurement Home Page. The Rasch Measurement SIG (AERA) thanks the Institute for Objective Measurement for inviting the publication of Rasch Measurement Transactions on the Institute's website, www.rasch.org.
|Coming Rasch-related Events|
|March 21, 2019, Thur.||13th annual meeting of the UK Rasch user group, Cambridge, UK, http://www.cambridgeassessment.org.uk/events/uk-rasch-user-group-2019|
|April 4 - 8, 2019, Thur.-Mon.||NCME annual meeting, Toronto, Canada,https://ncme.connectedcommunity.org/meetings/annual|
|April 5 - 9, 2019, Fri.-Tue.||AERA annual meeting, Toronto, Canada,www.aera.net/Events-Meetings/Annual-Meeting|
|April 12, 2019, Fri.||On-line course: Understanding Rasch Measurement Theory - Master's Level (G. Masters), https://www.acer.org/au/professional-learning/postgraduate/rasch|
|May 24 - June 21, 2019, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|May 22 - 30, 2019, Wed.-Thu.||Measuring and scale construction (with the Rasch Model), University of Manchester, England, https://www.cmist.manchester.ac.uk/study/short/intermediate/measurement-with-the-rasch-model/|
|June 4 - 7, 2019, Tue.-Fri.||In-Person Italian Rasch Analysis Workshop based on RUMM (Fabio La Porta and Serena Caselli; entirely in Italian). Prof David Andrich from Western Australia University will be hosted by the workshop. For enquiries and registration email to email@example.com|
|June 17-19, 2019, Mon.-Wed.||In-person workshop, Melbourne, Australia: Applying the Rasch Model in the Human Sciences: Introduction to Rasch measurement (Trevor Bond, Winsteps), Announcement|
|June 20-21, 2019, Thurs.-Fri.||In-person workshop, Melbourne, Australia: Applying the Rasch Model in the Human Sciences: Advanced Rasch measurement with Facets (Trevor Bond, Facets), Announcement|
|June 28 - July 26, 2019, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Further Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|July 2-5, 2019, Tue.-Fri.||2019 International Measurement Confederation (IMEKO) Joint Symposium, St. Petersburg, Russia,https://imeko19-spb.org|
|July 11-12 & 15-19, 2019, Thu.-Fri.||A Course in Rasch Measurement Theory (D.Andrich), University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia, flyer - http://www.education.uwa.edu.au/ppl/courses|
|Aug 5 - 10, 2019, Mon.-Sat.||6th International Summer School "Applied Psychometrics in Psychology and Education", Institute of Education at HSE University Moscow, Russia.https://ioe.hse.ru/en/announcements/248134963.html|
|Aug. 9 - Sept. 6, 2019, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Many-Facet Rasch Measurement (E. Smith, Facets), www.statistics.com|
|Aug. 14 - 16, 2019. Wed.-Fri.||An Introduction to Rasch Measurement: Theory and Applications (workshop led by Richard M. Smith) https://www.hkr.se/pmhealth2019rs|
|August 25-30, 2019, Sun.-Fri.||Pacific Rim Objective Measurement Society (PROMS) 2019, Surabaya, Indonesia https://proms.promsociety.org/2019/|
|Oct. 11 - Nov. 8, 2019, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|Nov. 3 - Nov. 4, 2019, Sun.-Mon.||International Outcome Measurement Conference, Chicago, IL,http://jampress.org/iomc2019.htm|
|Jan. 24 - Feb. 21, 2020, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|May 22 - June 19, 2020, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|June 26 - July 24, 2020, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Further Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|Aug. 7 - Sept. 4, 2020, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Many-Facet Rasch Measurement (E. Smith, Facets), www.statistics.com|
|Oct. 9 - Nov. 6, 2020, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|June 25 - July 23, 2021, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Further Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
The URL of this page is www.rasch.org/rmt/rmt122p.htm