Across the centuries, the development of tuning methods for musical instruments has been driven by the desire of musicians to expand the variety of harmonies and increase the types of easily playable music. There are intriguing parallels with the development of social science measurement. For instance, mathematical perfections were claimed for "Pythagorean" tunings, as they are now for some IRT models. On the other hand, special practical virtues were perceived in "just meantone" tunings, as they are now in raw- score-weighting schemes.
Most music we hear today is played with equal-temperament tuning. This became the de facto standard in 1854. In this tuning, the relationships between the notes sound the same in every musical key (either major or minor), wherever they are played on the piano. In each major (or minor) key the notes bear the same mathematical and acoustic relationship to each other as they do in every other key. This is a measurement ideal. One more note is the same amount extra everywhere on the piano. It is also a musical ideal. Playing music in another key does not require retuning. A transposed piece of music has the same musical feel, no matter what key it is played in. But there are costs. This type of tuning requires advanced technology and expertise. Also, the distinctive sounds of particular major and minor keys in earlier tunings, beloved of particular composers and performers, have been lost.
Prior to equal-temperament tuning, the pianist was required to make decisions. Is the note next above C to be C-sharp or D-flat? It could not be both simultaneously, as with equal temperament tuning. Once the decision was made, the piano was necessarily harmonically optimized for certain keys, and sub-optimal for others. J.S. Bach's "48 Preludes and Fugues for the Well Tempered Clavier" was written for this type of tuning. He demonstrates how the use of notes, tuned for one key, to play music written in a different key, produces a change of sound texture, and so a change of the emotional impact of the music on the hearer. This is type of change does not occur with modern equal-temperament tuning.
"Well temperament" tuning was prevalent from 1690 onwards. Its goal was to maximize the number of harmonies while simultaneously eliminating gross disharmonies from the scale of choice. This is equivalent to maximizing the reliability of a test for a particular sample.
Prior to "well temperament" tuning were the Pythagorean tuning methods. These followed an ideal of mathematical and musical perfection that worked nicely for centuries. But there were drawbacks. A change of musical key required retuning of the instruments. Tuning was done according to the performer's preference, so there was only a rough standardization of sound. Each musician claimed that his personal tuning method was a superior realization of the Pythagorean ideal of integer ratios between note frequencies. But Pythagorean tuning was simple, and musically effective. Its limitation was that only 11 of the 12 notes of an octave could be in tune simultaneously. Yet it was so easy and familiar, just as raw scores are today, that it was still widely used as late as 1800 A.D.
The development of tuning methods continues as musicians seek to enchant their audiences with ever more exotic harmonies and discords. Unfortunately, in a remarkable parallel to the current proliferation of psychometric models, "the history of tuning is saturated with clever and original theories that have no practical application." (Jorgensen, p.33) Jorgensen, O. (1977) Tuning the Historical Temperaments by Ear. Marquette: Northern Michigan University Press.
Scales: Music and Measurement. 2001. Linacre J.M. 15:3 p. 838
Scales: Music and Measurement Linacre J.M. Rasch Measurement Transactions, 2001, 15:3 p. 838
|Rasch Measurement Transactions (free, online)||Rasch Measurement research papers (free, online)||Probabilistic Models for Some Intelligence and Attainment Tests, Georg Rasch||Applying the Rasch Model 3rd. Ed., Bond & Fox||Best Test Design, Wright & Stone|
|Rating Scale Analysis, Wright & Masters||Introduction to Rasch Measurement, E. Smith & R. Smith||Introduction to Many-Facet Rasch Measurement, Thomas Eckes||Invariant Measurement: Using Rasch Models in the Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences, George Engelhard, Jr.||Statistical Analyses for Language Testers, Rita Green|
|Rasch Models: Foundations, Recent Developments, and Applications, Fischer & Molenaar||Journal of Applied Measurement||Rasch models for measurement, David Andrich||Constructing Measures, Mark Wilson||Rasch Analysis in the Human Sciences, Boone, Stave, Yale|
|in Spanish:||Análisis de Rasch para todos, Agustín Tristán||Mediciones, Posicionamientos y Diagnósticos Competitivos, Juan Ramón Oreja Rodríguez|
|Forum||Rasch Measurement Forum to discuss any Rasch-related topic|
Go to Top of Page
Go to index of all Rasch Measurement Transactions
AERA members: Join the Rasch Measurement SIG and receive the printed version of RMT
Some back issues of RMT are available as bound volumes
Subscribe to Journal of Applied Measurement
Go to Institute for Objective Measurement Home Page. The Rasch Measurement SIG (AERA) thanks the Institute for Objective Measurement for inviting the publication of Rasch Measurement Transactions on the Institute's website, www.rasch.org.
|Coming Rasch-related Events|
|Sept. 27-29, 2017, Wed.-Fri.||In-person workshop: Introductory Rasch Analysis using RUMM2030, Leeds, UK (M. Horton), Announcement|
|Oct. 13 - Nov. 10, 2017, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|Oct. 25-27, 2017, Wed.-Fri.||In-person workshop: Applying the Rasch Model hands-on introductory workshop, Melbourne, Australia (T. Bond, B&FSteps), Announcement|
|Dec. 6-8, 2017, Wed.-Fri.||In-person workshop: Introductory Rasch Analysis using RUMM2030, Leeds, UK (M. Horton), Announcement|
|Jan. 5 - Feb. 2, 2018, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|Jan. 10-16, 2018, Wed.-Tues.||In-person workshop: Advanced Course in Rasch Measurement Theory and the application of RUMM2030, Perth, Australia (D. Andrich), Announcement|
|Jan. 17-19, 2018, Wed.-Fri.||Rasch Conference: Seventh International Conference on Probabilistic Models for Measurement, Matilda Bay Club, Perth, Australia, Website|
|April 13-17, 2018, Fri.-Tues.||AERA, New York, NY, www.aera.net|
|May 25 - June 22, 2018, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|June 29 - July 27, 2018, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Further Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|Aug. 10 - Sept. 7, 2018, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Many-Facet Rasch Measurement (E. Smith, Facets), www.statistics.com|
|Oct. 12 - Nov. 9, 2018, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
The URL of this page is www.rasch.org/rmt/rmt153h.htm