Hambleton et al. (1991) suggest using a chi-square test to identify local independence between two items. The procedure consists of constructing a 2x2 table for two items using the correct and incorrect answers of persons at the same level of ability (i.e., with the same raw scores on the test):
Item X | |||
Item Y | Right | Wrong | Total |
Right Wrong |
A C |
B D |
Y_{R} = A+B N-Y_{R}= C+D |
Total | X_{R} = A+C | N-X_{R} = B+D | N = A+B+C+D |
This yields a chi-square statistic with 1 degree of freedom (without Yates' continuity correction, but the principle is the same):
This is minimized to zero, and local independence is apparently assured in this dataset at this ability level for this pair of items, when
AD = BC
i.e., when
A/N = X_{R}/N * Y_{R}/N
as it would be when the data exactly conform to the Rasch model, or any other model in which the two items are conditionally independent.
In conventional usage, however, when χ^{2} < 3.84, there is a presumption of local independence with 95% confidence. Then "local independence" is declared!
Let us conduct an experiment based on this convention. Let us constrain the possible outcomes so that, if a subject succeeds on item X, that subject cannot fail on item Y. So the items are always locally dependent. The data matrix becomes:
Item X | |||
Item Y | Right | Wrong | Total |
Right Wrong |
A 0 |
B D |
Y_{R} = A+B N-Y_{R}= D |
Total | X_{R} = A | N-X_{R} = B+D | N = A+B+D |
The chi-square test apparently becomes:
Then we can determine the relationship between successes on items X and Y for any value of chi-square, say N*k, where k is a constant. Accordingly,
Rewriting this in terms of probabilities, where P_{X} is the probability of success on item X under these conditions, etc., and taking logarithms, such that K=log_{e}(k):
It is seen that the relationship between the items is expressed in terms of log-odds difficulties, in accord with the Rasch model, despite that fact that the data do not accord with Rasch model conditions (because the items are locally dependent). Item Y is always easier than item X.
Further, for any particular chi-square "significance" value, e.g., 3.84, items with paired log-odds difficulties differing by less than log_{e} (3.84 / N) might be unwittingly declared "locally independent".
Here is an example:
Item X | |||
Item Y | Right | Wrong | Total |
Right Wrong |
20 0 |
67 13 |
87 13 |
Total | 20 | 80 | 100 |
The log-odds difficulties of the two items are log_{e}(13/87) = -1.90, and log_{e}(80/20) = 1.39 logits, differing by -3.29. The criterion value is log_{e}(3.84/100) = -3.26. Since -3.29 is less than -3.26, the items might be misleadingly declared "locally independent". For comparison, the chi-square computation above gives: χ² = 100 * 260^2 / (87 * 13* 20 * 80) = 3.74 with 1 d.f. one-sided → p=.053, so that the null hypothesis of local independence is not rejected.
Agustin Tristan
Hambleton R.K., Swaminathan H., Rogers H.J. (1991) "Fundamentals of item response theory", Sage publications Inc. London, Chapter 2, pp 9-12 and Exercise 6, pp 29-31
Chi-square local independence meets the Rasch model. Tristan A. … 16:1 p.861
Chi-square local independence meets the Rasch model. Tristan A. … Rasch Measurement Transactions, 2002, 16:1 p.861
Rasch Publications | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|
Rasch Measurement Transactions (free, online) | Rasch Measurement research papers (free, online) | Probabilistic Models for Some Intelligence and Attainment Tests, Georg Rasch | Applying the Rasch Model 3rd. Ed., Bond & Fox | Best Test Design, Wright & Stone |
Rating Scale Analysis, Wright & Masters | Introduction to Rasch Measurement, E. Smith & R. Smith | Introduction to Many-Facet Rasch Measurement, Thomas Eckes | Invariant Measurement: Using Rasch Models in the Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences, George Engelhard, Jr. | Statistical Analyses for Language Testers, Rita Green |
Rasch Models: Foundations, Recent Developments, and Applications, Fischer & Molenaar | Journal of Applied Measurement | Rasch models for measurement, David Andrich | Constructing Measures, Mark Wilson | Rasch Analysis in the Human Sciences, Boone, Stave, Yale |
in Spanish: | Análisis de Rasch para todos, Agustín Tristán | Mediciones, Posicionamientos y Diagnósticos Competitivos, Juan Ramón Oreja Rodríguez |
Forum | Rasch Measurement Forum to discuss any Rasch-related topic |
Go to Top of Page
Go to index of all Rasch Measurement Transactions
AERA members: Join the Rasch Measurement SIG and receive the printed version of RMT
Some back issues of RMT are available as bound volumes
Subscribe to Journal of Applied Measurement
Go to Institute for Objective Measurement Home Page. The Rasch Measurement SIG (AERA) thanks the Institute for Objective Measurement for inviting the publication of Rasch Measurement Transactions on the Institute's website, www.rasch.org.
Coming Rasch-related Events | |
---|---|
June 29 - July 27, 2018, Fri.-Fri. | On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Further Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com |
July 25 - July 27, 2018, Wed.-Fri. | Pacific-Rim Objective Measurement Symposium (PROMS), (Preconference workshops July 23-24, 2018) Fudan University, Shanghai, China "Applying Rasch Measurement in Language Assessment and across the Human Sciences", www.promsociety.org |
July 29 - August 4, 2018 | Vth International Summer School `Applied Psychometrics in Psychology and Education`, Institute of Education at the Higher School of Economics, St. Petersburg, Russia, https://ioe.hse.ru/en/announcements/215681182.html |
July 30 - Nov., 2018 | Online Introduction to Classical and Rasch Measurement Theories (D.Andrich), University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia, http://www.education.uwa.edu.au/ppl/courses |
Aug. 10 - Sept. 7, 2018, Fri.-Fri. | On-line workshop: Many-Facet Rasch Measurement (E. Smith, Facets), www.statistics.com |
August 25 - 28, 2018, Sat.-Tue. | Análisis de Rasch introductorio (en español). (Agustín Tristán), Instituto de Evaluación e Ingeniería Avanzada. San Luis Potosí, México. www.ieia.com.mx |
Sept. 3 - 6, 2018, Mon.-Thurs. | IMEKO World Congress, Belfast, Northern Ireland, www.imeko2018.org |
Oct. 12 - Nov. 9, 2018, Fri.-Fri. | On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com |
The URL of this page is www.rasch.org/rmt/rmt161f.htm
Website: www.rasch.org/rmt/contents.htm