SAS Macros for Rasch

Danish statistician, Karl Bang Christensen, and I have developed some SAS macros for Rasch modeling. This was part of Karl's Ph.D. study and he has laid down the statistical foundation with some help from me on programming. The macros can handle:

* the standard Rasch model and
* the Partial Credit model for polytomous items
* the Martin-Lö test for multidimensionality
* log-linear Rasch models (that can model differential item functioning)
* latent regression models (where the outcome is measured by a Rasch model or a log-linear Rasch model)
* Poisson or logistic regression models (where a covariate is measured by Rasch model or a log-linear Rasch model)

The macros are discussed in a technical report in which you can also find the link to the macros themselves: Christensen, K. B., & Bjorner, J. B. (2003). SAS macros for Rasch based latent variable modeling (Tech. Rep. No. 03/13). Department of Biostatistics, University of Copenhagen.

We would be very happy if someone would use the macros in their analytic work. We also hope that the macros can illustrate how these models can be fitted with a standard statistical package. However, for long scales the macros will be slow and you are probably better off using another program. Note also, that you would use the macros at your own risk and that we cannot commit ourselves to providing any support. For comments on the macros, please write either Karl or myself.

Jakob Bue Bjorner, MD, PhD
Deputy Chief Science Officer
QualityMetric Incorporated

IRT-Lab Version 2

Using software to enhance research and pedagogy in the fields of Rasch measurement and IRT.

IRT-Lab performs a variety of functions that can be used by researchers, teachers, and students of Rasch measurement and item response theory (IRT) to facilitate the understanding of these nonlinear measurement models.

* Graph item characteristic curves associated with the dichotomous Rasch and IRT models, the partial credit model, the generalized partial credit model, and the graded response model.

* View the log-likelihood functions associated with person and item parameter estimation

* View the information functions and corresponding standard error functions associated with person parameter estimation.

* Simulate data for tests having items following a variety of Rasch and IRT models.

A copy of IRT-Lab can be obtained by providing a full mailing address to Randy Penfield at

Rasch-related software: SAS macros and IRT-Lab. … 17:2 p. 923ff.

Rasch Publications
Rasch Measurement Transactions (free, online) Rasch Measurement research papers (free, online) Probabilistic Models for Some Intelligence and Attainment Tests, Georg Rasch Applying the Rasch Model 3rd. Ed., Bond & Fox Best Test Design, Wright & Stone
Rating Scale Analysis, Wright & Masters Introduction to Rasch Measurement, E. Smith & R. Smith Introduction to Many-Facet Rasch Measurement, Thomas Eckes Invariant Measurement: Using Rasch Models in the Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences, George Engelhard, Jr. Statistical Analyses for Language Testers, Rita Green
Rasch Models: Foundations, Recent Developments, and Applications, Fischer & Molenaar Journal of Applied Measurement Rasch models for measurement, David Andrich Constructing Measures, Mark Wilson Rasch Analysis in the Human Sciences, Boone, Stave, Yale
in Spanish: Análisis de Rasch para todos, Agustín Tristán Mediciones, Posicionamientos y Diagnósticos Competitivos, Juan Ramón Oreja Rodríguez

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Coming Rasch-related Events
Oct. 6 - Nov. 3, 2023, Fri.-Fri. On-line workshop: Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Facets),
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Aug. 9 - Sept. 6, 2024, Fri.-Fri. On-line workshop: Many-Facet Rasch Measurement (E. Smith, Facets),


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