Findings based on rating scales can be difficult to explain to a non-technical audience. If the rating-scale categories can be bisected by a pass-fail cut-point, such as "agree or not", "competent or not", "impaired or not", "success or failure", then it can simplify communication if the rating scale is dichotomized around the cut-point. Categories above the cut-point are scored "1", and categories below the cut-point are scored "0".
How do measures based on the dichotomized data relate to the measures based on the original ratings? The Figure illustrates the relationship.
The Figure shows a 3-category item, rated 0-1-2. The two cumulative probability ogives (based on the Rasch Partial-Credit Model, PCM) for that rating scale are shown. The intersections of the ogives with 0.5 probability are the Rasch-Thurstone thresholds.
The rating scale can be dichotomized in two ways: 0-1-2 becomes 0-0-1 or 0-1-2 becomes 0-1-1. These two dichotomizations can be analyzed with the dichotomous Rasch model. To make comparison simpler, the person measures are anchored at their rating-scale estimates. The result of the dichotomous analysis is two dichotomous ogives, one for each of the two dichotomizations. The Figures indicates that the two dichotomous ogives approximate the cumulative probability ogives of the rating-scale analysis. Thus the difficulties of the dichotomized items approximate the Rasch-Thurstone cumulative-probability thresholds, not the Rasch-Andrich equal-adjacent-category-probability thresholds (which are generally more central).
This result is reassuring because it indicates that inferences based on the simpler dichotomized data approximate inferences based on the more complex rating-scale data.
This also suggest that, when only the top category of a partial-credit scale is "correct", the Rasch-Thurstone threshold of the top category of the partial-credit (rating-scale) item corresponds to the dichotomous difficulty of the equivalent right-wrong item.
Note: the actual ranges of the categories on the latent variable are given by the 50% Cumulative Probabilities = the Rasch-Thurstone thresholds (not the Rasch-Andrich thresholds). When the interval between two Rasch-Thurstone thresholds is less than about 1.0 logits, the category is no longer modal - the peak probability is lower than the probability of adjacent categories. Todiscover what are the category boundaries on the latent variable, imagine 1000 persons on the latent variable at a category boundary. When they respond, 50% will choose categories below the boundary and 50% above. This happens at the Rasch-Thurstone threshold. It does not happen at the Rasch-Andrich threshold. This is further confirmed by dichotomizing the rating-scale responses - see above. The dichotomized item difficulties are close to the Rasch-Thurstone thresholds, not the usually more central Rasch-Andrich thresholds.
Linacre J.M. (2009) Dichotomizing Rating Scales and Rasch-Thurstone Thresholds, Rasch Measurement Transactions, 2009, 23:3, 1228
|Rasch Measurement Transactions (free, online)||Rasch Measurement research papers (free, online)||Probabilistic Models for Some Intelligence and Attainment Tests, Georg Rasch||Applying the Rasch Model 3rd. Ed., Bond & Fox||Best Test Design, Wright & Stone|
|Rating Scale Analysis, Wright & Masters||Introduction to Rasch Measurement, E. Smith & R. Smith||Introduction to Many-Facet Rasch Measurement, Thomas Eckes||Invariant Measurement: Using Rasch Models in the Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences, George Engelhard, Jr.||Statistical Analyses for Language Testers, Rita Green|
|Rasch Models: Foundations, Recent Developments, and Applications, Fischer & Molenaar||Journal of Applied Measurement||Rasch models for measurement, David Andrich||Constructing Measures, Mark Wilson||Rasch Analysis in the Human Sciences, Boone, Stave, Yale|
|in Spanish:||Análisis de Rasch para todos, Agustín Tristán||Mediciones, Posicionamientos y Diagnósticos Competitivos, Juan Ramón Oreja Rodríguez|
|Forum||Rasch Measurement Forum to discuss any Rasch-related topic|
Go to Top of Page
Go to index of all Rasch Measurement Transactions
AERA members: Join the Rasch Measurement SIG and receive the printed version of RMT
Some back issues of RMT are available as bound volumes
Subscribe to Journal of Applied Measurement
Go to Institute for Objective Measurement Home Page. The Rasch Measurement SIG (AERA) thanks the Institute for Objective Measurement for inviting the publication of Rasch Measurement Transactions on the Institute's website, www.rasch.org.
|Coming Rasch-related Events|
|March 21, 2019, Thur.||13th annual meeting of the UK Rasch user group, Cambridge, UK, http://www.cambridgeassessment.org.uk/events/uk-rasch-user-group-2019|
|April 4 - 8, 2019, Thur.-Mon.||NCME annual meeting, Toronto, Canada,https://ncme.connectedcommunity.org/meetings/annual|
|April 5 - 9, 2019, Fri.-Tue.||AERA annual meeting, Toronto, Canada,www.aera.net/Events-Meetings/Annual-Meeting|
|April 12, 2019, Fri.||On-line course: Understanding Rasch Measurement Theory - Master's Level (G. Masters), https://www.acer.org/au/professional-learning/postgraduate/rasch|
|May 24 - June 21, 2019, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|May 22 - 30, 2019, Wed.-Thu.||Measuring and scale construction (with the Rasch Model), University of Manchester, England, https://www.cmist.manchester.ac.uk/study/short/intermediate/measurement-with-the-rasch-model/|
|June 17-19, 2019, Mon.-Wed.||In-person workshop, Melbourne, Australia: Applying the Rasch Model in the Human Sciences: Introduction to Rasch measurement (Trevor Bond, Winsteps), Announcement|
|June 20-21, 2019, Thurs.-Fri.||In-person workshop, Melbourne, Australia: Applying the Rasch Model in the Human Sciences: Advanced Rasch measurement with Facets (Trevor Bond, Facets), Announcement|
|June 28 - July 26, 2019, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Further Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|July 2-5, 2019, Tue.-Fri.||2019 International Measurement Confederation (IMEKO) Joint Symposium, St. Petersburg, Russia,https://imeko19-spb.org|
|July 11-12 & 15-19, 2019, Thu.-Fri.||A Course in Rasch Measurement Theory (D.Andrich), University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia, flyer - http://www.education.uwa.edu.au/ppl/courses|
|Aug 5 - 10, 2019, Mon.-Sat.||6th International Summer School "Applied Psychometrics in Psychology and Education", Institute of Education at HSE University Moscow, Russia.https://ioe.hse.ru/en/announcements/248134963.html|
|Aug. 9 - Sept. 6, 2019, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Many-Facet Rasch Measurement (E. Smith, Facets), www.statistics.com|
|August 25-30, 2019, Sun.-Fri.||Pacific Rim Objective Measurement Society (PROMS) 2019, Surabaya, Indonesia https://proms.promsociety.org/2019/|
|Oct. 11 - Nov. 8, 2019, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|Jan. 24 - Feb. 21, 2020, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|May 22 - June 19, 2020, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|June 26 - July 24, 2020, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Further Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|Aug. 7 - Sept. 4, 2020, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Many-Facet Rasch Measurement (E. Smith, Facets), www.statistics.com|
|Oct. 9 - Nov. 6, 2020, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|June 25 - July 23, 2021, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Further Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
The URL of this page is www.rasch.org/rmt/rmt233e.htm