Directness and Measurement

Andrich's contention (RMT 1990 4(3):101-102) that physical and social measurements are of equal directness is supported by this quotation from an authority of an earlier generation:

". . . all measurements are indirect in one sense or another. Not even simple physical measurements are direct, as the philosophically naive individual is likely to maintain. The physical weight of an object is customarily determined by watching a pointer on a scale. No one could truthfully say that he 'saw' the weight. . .

"It must be granted that, to measure such psychological attributes as appreciation of beauty, . . . we must depend upon secondary signs of these attributes. The secondary signs bear some functional relationship to the thing we wish to measure, just as the movement of a pointer on a scale is assumed to bear a functional relationship to the physical phenomenon under consideration. The functional relationship may be simpler and more dependable in the latter case than in the former and the type of relationship may be more obvious. That is the only logical difference. It is admittedly a difference of some practical consequence. But it is not a difference which lead to the conclusion that measurement is possible in the one case and impossible in the other."
Guilford, J. P., (1936), Psychometric Methods, McGraw-Hill, Inc., pp. 1-19.

Directness and Measurement, T Rehfeldt … Rasch Measurement Transactions, 1990, 4:3 p. 117

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Rasch Measurement Transactions (free, online) Rasch Measurement research papers (free, online) Probabilistic Models for Some Intelligence and Attainment Tests, Georg Rasch Applying the Rasch Model 3rd. Ed., Bond & Fox Best Test Design, Wright & Stone
Rating Scale Analysis, Wright & Masters Introduction to Rasch Measurement, E. Smith & R. Smith Introduction to Many-Facet Rasch Measurement, Thomas Eckes Invariant Measurement: Using Rasch Models in the Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences, George Engelhard, Jr. Statistical Analyses for Language Testers, Rita Green
Rasch Models: Foundations, Recent Developments, and Applications, Fischer & Molenaar Journal of Applied Measurement Rasch models for measurement, David Andrich Constructing Measures, Mark Wilson Rasch Analysis in the Human Sciences, Boone, Stave, Yale
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